Remember the reaction that generates 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-BPG)?
Wednesday, December 31, 2014
Remember the reaction that generates 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-BPG)?
Tuesday, December 30, 2014
Exercise. Exercise gives you endorphins. Endorphins make you happy. Happy people kill exams!
(Do 20 jumps right now and then read further :D )
Smile. Look at this smiley (:
Tissue plasminogen activator is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the enzyme responsible for clot breakdown.
It is used in the treatment of embolic or thrombotic stroke.
Contraindicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma. The antidote for tPA in case of toxicity is epsilon aminocaproic acid.
Mnemonic is, "TPA"
T - Thrombotic and embolic stroke (Use)
P - Plasmin (Mechanism of action)
A - Aminocaproic acid (Antidote)
The dose mnemonic is, "TPA" again!
T for ten:
10% of dose given as bolus.
P mirrored looks like a 9:
0.9 mg/kg dose, maximum 90 mg.
A for an hour:
Rest of the dose is given as an infusion lasting for 60 minutes.
Monday, December 29, 2014
This is practical exam related concept.
In a patient with neurological symptoms, you'd like to know whether the person is left handed or right handed. Why?
Dominant hand is important in medicine because it helps us figure out the dominant hemisphere - especially, in patients with stroke.
People who are right handed have their left cerebral hemisphere dominant. 70% left handed people are left hemisphere dominant.
To figure out handedness, you can ask the person with which hand he writes. If illiterate - You can ask with which hand he prefers to eat, combs hair, etc.
Threading a needle is an excellent way to determine handedness because very frequently people tend to hold the thread in the dominant hand and hold the needle with the non dominant hand.
I'm left cerebral hemisphere dominant. You?
Saturday, December 27, 2014
Inspiration is longer than expiration. No pause in between.
They are normal.
VE is short. (Expiration is short)
VesI is long. (Inspiration is long)
Inspiration and expiration occupy the same duration of time and are separated by a pause.
B for Bronchial, B for Both are equal.
Both are equal with a pause.
Heard in: Bronchial asthma, Emphysema.
The B for Both are equal. The hyphen reminds me of the pause.
Everything is awesome :D
Wednesday, December 24, 2014
Monday, December 22, 2014
Thursday, December 18, 2014
Wednesday, December 17, 2014
Sunday, December 14, 2014
Saturday, December 13, 2014
We'll be learning about one of the operations used in the treatment of vaginal prolapse.
Thursday, December 11, 2014
What is the need of pain during delivery of a baby? I'm not asking the physiological mechanism. I believe that nature doesn't make a process painful unnecessarily and I wish to understand the importance.
To help make the essential arrangements for the birth of the child.
To make it simpler for you, I'll tell you what happens when the pregnant woman does not experience labor pains. It's called precipitate labor. You'll read about it in forensic and medical toxicology in second year.
Wednesday, December 10, 2014
Tuesday, December 9, 2014
Sunday, December 7, 2014
Fibroelastosis (Endocardial fibroelastosis)
Trisomy 13, 18, 21
Alpha thalassemia (Barts)
Lysosomal storage disease
Citrus fruits and cabbage are sources
Cooking destroys vitamin C
Capillary intercellular matrix formation
Chew (Bones and teeth development)
So many C's!
Saturday, December 6, 2014
WHO criteria for diagnosis of dengue fever
All three of these should be present:
2. Two or more of the following clinical symptoms (See below, HARM mnemonic)
3. Positive serology or occurrence with same time and place as other confirmed cases of dengue.
Hemolytic tendencies (Ecchymoses, purpura)
Retro orbital pain
Serology for dengue +ve
Short of WBC's (Leucopenia)
My drawing is not that cute, but children are.
They have some findings which are normal and require no treatment. I have illustrated these findings in the pictures below.
Friday, December 5, 2014
Wednesday, December 3, 2014
We'll be learning about an iron and anemia related topic today.
Let's start with the formulas!
H has 3 strokes | - |, so 0.3 is the multiplication factor.
Haldane has a L, for weight in Lbs.
Haldane has a H, H for Hundred. So hundred minus Hb %.
Add half of hundred, 50%, for stores.
Tuesday, December 2, 2014
Stomach wash - Adrenaline in Saline given through Ryle's tube
Surgery - Under running of the bleeder using vicryl; ligation of splenic vessels and splenectomy; partial gastrectomy and gastroduodenostomy
Tube (Stomach wash using Ryle's tube)
Surgery for acute bleeding varices and portal hypertension that cause portoazygos disconnection mnemonic
Monday, December 1, 2014
Sunday, November 30, 2014
Saturday, November 29, 2014
This is for all those who are studying bacteriology.
Certain foods can transmit very specific infections, and examiners like to go after it. Make sure you know this list!
|Food.. Infected food.|
Thursday, November 27, 2014
Wednesday, November 26, 2014
Things to know about multiple sclerosis -
When I made this, it was more like my check list on what to write in my exam. So I wouldn't exactly call it a mnemonic.
The words keep recurring in the mnemonic but I wrote them twice anyway (More revision, more recall, yaay!)
Upper motor neuron weakness
Posterior column features
Exercise worsens symptoms
Exercise worsens symptoms
There is another simplified, "SINS" mnemonic as well.
Updated on 3rd December, 2014: Pulfrich phenomenon, suggested by Sujay Nigudkar
Tuesday, November 25, 2014
Parkinson's disease is associated with resting tremor.
Friday, November 21, 2014
Let's get started :)
Forward (moves distally with growth of nail)
Undernourished (seen in malnourished patients)
Oxidation - Losing the negativity around you (For new relationships with good aminoacids like tyrosine) =D
Organification - Because Iodine is just a molecule and can’t be used by organs alone. It needs to be "organified" :P
Coupling - Why stay alone when love is in the air? <3
Thursday, November 20, 2014
Wednesday, November 19, 2014
I talk about them in the video.
Tuesday, November 18, 2014
It focuses on how to remember the various numerical values and how to memorize the mnemonic itself lol.
Monday, November 17, 2014
G - Glaucoma (On typical use)
L - Limb muscle atrophy
U - Ulcer (Peptic ulcer)
C - Cushing syndrome
O - Osteoporosis
C - Cataract (On systemic use)
O - Osteoporosis (Avascular necrosis of head of femur)
R - c/I in Renal failure
T - c/I in Tuberculosis
I - Impairs healing
C - c/I in CHF
I - Infections (Immunosuppressive)
D - Diabetes mellitus
S - Suppression of HPA axis
This mnemonic was submitted by Parth Mali. Tumaro abhar, Parth!
That's your cerebellum!
(We'll be talking about it today!)
That's your cerebrum!
And Medicowesome (Not too sure about the second bit xD)
Sunday, November 16, 2014
The mnemonic is, "wHIpple'S"
H for hypoglycaemia in fasting state.
I to remind you that it is seen in insulinomas.
S for sugar less than 45 mg % and for Symptoms relieved by Glucose.
Alternatively, you can remember "HIS Whip" if you know what I mean ;)
Saturday, November 15, 2014
Courvoisier's law states that in a patient with jaundice, if there is a palpable gallbladder, it is not due to stones.
Obviously, exception to the rule will be conditions with a stone and palpable gallbladder!
The mnemonic is, "DHE exception".
D: Double impacted stone - one in CBD and one in cystic duct, with mucocele of gallbladder.
H: Large stone in Hartmann's pouch.
E: Empyema gallbladder.
The rule ain't useful if the patient doesn't have a gallbladder (absence, previous cholecystectomy) or if the gallbladder is intrahepatic.
'DHEm' rebellious conditions breaking rules xD
Friday, November 14, 2014
Thursday, November 13, 2014
Wednesday, November 12, 2014
Monday, November 10, 2014
Watch it here: http://youtu.be/uKkxNi1VS5g
Saturday, November 8, 2014
These are random mnemonics I use to remember certain points about filariasis. Not sure if it'll help everybody. But uploading anyway!
"Filariasis fills the blood at night."
To remember that Microfilaria can be demonstrated in peripheral smear only at night.
"Microfilaria fills microvessels (capillaries) of the lung"
And cause tropical pulmonary eosinophilia!
Manifestations of filariasis
Remember 3 L's:
Lymphatic filariasis (caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi)
Loiasis (caused by Loa loa)
Light (light, sight, blindness - river blindness caused by Onchocerca volvulus)
So complicated names!
Diethylcarbamazine dose mnemonic:
DEC, D-E-six, 6 mg/kg for 21 days.
The mnemonic for this itchy disease is the word, "SCABIES" itself. I divided it into two parts, the scabicides and the extra drugs used for pruritus, keratolysis, etc. The mnemonic is the same for both.
S for Sulphur ointment
C for Crotamiton
B for Benzyl benzoate
b flipped upside down looks like a p, for permethrin
I for Ivermectin
I also looks like a L, for Lindane
S for Salicylic acid
S for Salicylates
C for Calamine lotion
C for Corticosteroids
A for Antihistamines
Use 5% permethrin.
L looks like 1, so 1% Lindane.
Ivermectin (200 micro g/kg) single oral dose. Patients with crusted Scabies may require two or more doses of ivermectin.
Salicylic acid is a keratolytic; allows good penetration of scabicides.
Antihistamines, salicylates, and calamine lotion relieve itching during treatment, and topical glucocorticoids are useful for the pruritus that lingers after effective treatment.
Was studying bronchial asthma and COPD today :)
Formoterol or Eformoterol
Because scrotal approach for biopsies could disseminate testicular tumors, Chevassu suggested inguinal exploration and occlusion of the testicular vessels before biopsy of suspicious lesions.
I use a pun to remember this - "Chew vessels" to prevent seeding: Chevassou.
Other facts you must remember are - Seminomas are radiosensitive. They respond to chemotherapy with cisplatin as well.
And that teratomas have frequent lymph node involvement.
"PISS" is my memory aid for remembering, Parasympathetics make you Pee from S2 - S4 segments. (Two S's in piss, so S2)
So the opposite, sympathetic L1 and L2, allow urine to collect and are inhibitory to the detrusor muscle.
Thursday, November 6, 2014
I focus on how to remember the doses of the medications in this post.
Atropine. aTWOpine. 2 mg IV every 5-10 minutes till full atropinisation occurs.
Pralidoxime is also known as 2-PAM. Two. So 20 mg/kg in 20 minutes is the loading dose. Half that, 10 mg/kg/hr is the maintenance.
Remember to remove the patient from further exposure and wash the skin, give gastric lavage.
Also catheterize the patient before atropine is given (viva concept).
For symptoms of muscarinic poisoning, the common mnemonics are "DUMBBELLS" and "Cholinergics make you leaky"
Wednesday, November 5, 2014
Encephalitis (And meningitis)
Pain in abdomen
Transmitted through animal urine
Pericorneal reddening, Photophobia
Retro orbital pain, Rash
O looks like a heart for bradycardia
The mnemonic is, "EPIDURAL"
EP: Epidural catheter is Placed and anaesthetic is infused
I for Indwelling catheter for additional injections later
D for delay (A 15-30 min delay in onset is seen with epidural anaesthesia)
U for urinary retention, a complication of epidural anaesthesia (Another complication that you must remember is hypotension)
R for Repeated prolonged infusion that can be given with epidural anaesthesia
A for Analgesia (Epidural is used for labor analgesia, post op pain and cancer pain)
L for Lidocaine (The letter L has two lines, so two percent is the dose. Two also reminds me of Touhy needle, used for the anaesthesia)
Another commonly used anaesthetic is 0.5% Bupivacaine.
*sings* I've become so numb
Tuesday, November 4, 2014
Happy Tuesday everyone!
The mnemonic for tocolytic drugs is, "ABC MNO"
B : Beta mimetics like ritodrine (return to dreams)
C : Calcium channel blockers like Nifedipine
C : Cyclooxygenase inhibitors like Indomethacin
M : Magnesium sulphate
N : NO donors like Glyceryl trinitrate
O : Oxytocin antagonists like Atociban
A and O repeat twice, I wrote them anyway because they give a good flow :)
I was asked an MCQ on this concept in my prelims. They asked which of the following drugs is NOT a tocolytic and they put 4 drugs. So it's important to know ALL the tocolytic drugs.
If you complete the C, it looks like an O; umbilicus looks like an O. So pancreatic enzymes seeping through the falciform ligament causing discoloration around the umbilicus is the Cullen's sign.
Sunday, November 2, 2014
ACTH and MSH:
In Addison's disease, increase in ACTH causes hyperpigmentation because it is similar to MSH.
HCG and TSH:
Patients with choriocarcinoma can present with hyperthyroidism. It's because HCG is similar to TSH.
Pitocin and pitressin:
The drug oxytocin can cause water retention because it is similar to vasopressin.
These are all I can think of for now, lemme know if you guys know any other hormones that are so similar that they are able to cause similar effects in our body.
Thursday, October 30, 2014
Wednesday, October 29, 2014
Tuesday, October 28, 2014
I added some more information to it, my theory being, if I forget one manifestation; I have another one for backup.
I remember, "Scrotum Penis Gone" to remember the initials of this eponymous surgery. It prevents frequent dermatitis of the scrotal skin due to perineal urethrostomy and reduces sexual desire.
The ilioinguinal lymph nodes bilaterally form a Y with the penis. (See image) Y for young's operation, that's how I remember!
I somehow think of ALGae and PEE when I imagine the hydatid cyst, maybe because the cyst is fluid filled and algae grow in contaminated water. (My cue to write idk I am just weird!)
Anyway, that's your mnemonic.
Laminated membrane (Ectocyst)
Germinal epithelium (Endocyst)
Monday, October 27, 2014
Thursday, October 23, 2014
This is a complicated mnemonic. Too many drugs but hopefully it will help you write a SAQ on it :)
4 drugs to which the mycobacteria are susceptible should be used.
6 months intensive phase is followed by a continuation phase for 18-24 months.
An injectable drug like kanamycin or streptomycin is dropped in the continuation phase.
High-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are thought of as an adjunct for the treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis.
Capreomycin, amikacin, kanamycin.
Cycloserine, aminosalicylic acid (PAS), thioamides (Ethionamide).
Give KEEPQ for 6 months and then PEEQ for 18 months (Drop the injectable, remember?)
Give PEQS for 6 months and then PEEQ for 18 months.
And then replace injectable Streptomycin with Ethionamide
Quinolone + any one from CAKe + any two from CAT
Tuesday, October 21, 2014
|Classification of choledochal cysts mnemonic|
Monday, October 20, 2014
These notes are messier than usual because I wasn't planning to upload them at first.
Lemme know in the comments if you don't understand something, I'll type it out for ya!
Related post: Peroneal nerve branches anatomy mnemonic
Sunday, October 19, 2014
|Definition of mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy and mononeuritis multiplex|
|Various causes of peripheral neuropathy (I wrote the ones I found easy to remember ^_^ )|
Thursday, October 16, 2014
This was asked in a viva.
So I did my usual Googling and found this as a satisfactory answer :)
Several mechanisms may be involved in the development of circadian abnormalities in cirrhosis, including the effect of gut-derived toxins on the brain and decreased sensorial inputs that entrain the circadian clock such as insufficient light exposure, social isolation, or low levels of activity and retinohypothalamic and endocrine (e.g., melatonin) abnormalities.
The sleep-wake cycle is one of the functions regulated by the circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, which has efferent connections that influence a large array of biological functions including the secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland.
For people who sleep “normal hours”, natural melatonin production peaks between 2 am and 4 am, with the peaks becoming smaller with advancing age. Normally melatonin is a natural sleep-inducing agent. Because daylight reduces melatonin production and blood levels of melatonin are usually high at night and low during the day.
In patients with cirrhosis, the diurnal plasma melatonin profile shows a significant delay in the onset of plasma melatonin increase and a delay in its peak nocturnal level. This displacement of the melatonin profile could be a reflection of a shift in the phase of the circadian clock.
Wednesday, October 15, 2014
This question is frequently asked in orthopedics section of surgery.
For Rolling Stones fans, this mnemonic is lovely <3
For others, imagine trying to crush a rolling stone with your outstretched hand :P
"Been Crushing on Rolling Stones."
Collar bone fracture (rare)
Reverse Bennetts fracture
For the sake of completion, I would like to add other injuries associated with FOOSH:
Green stick fracture of distal radius
Epiphyseal fracture of distal radius
Ulnar collateral ligament injury
Monday, October 13, 2014
What is the difference between menstrual regulation and vacuum evacuation?
I was reading gynaecology when I realized that the principles of surgical instrumentation for menstrual regulation are identical to those for first-trimester abortion done by using vacuum aspiration.
Both the procedures involve aspiration of contents of the uterine cavity by means of a plastic cannula called Karman's cannula.
So what's the difference?
Confirmation of pregnancy.
Menstrual Regulation (MR) is the treatment of the delayed menstrual period, to assure a non-pregnant state and a normal menstrual cycle the next time. It is early vacuum evacuation.
Vacuum aspiration is medical termination of pregnancy or abortion. Pregnancy is confirmed when this procedure is performed.
Why give it different names?
MR has an advantage in the countries where abortion is legally banned because it can be conducted without a confirmatory pregnancy test.
Additional info: MR is also used for some other clinical purposes, such as, for uterine biopsy, to treat incomplete abortions, to regularise the menses.
This doubt was clarified by a friend's professor. Thanks!
Captopril enhanced radionucleotide renal scan.
Duplex doppler flow study.
MR angiography with gadolinium enhancements.
Spiral CT scan with IV contrast agents.
Renal angiogram is important in determining whether the renovascular hypertension is due to atherosclerosis or due to fibromuscular dysplasia.
Renal vein renin determination is important to assess the outcome of surgery.
Just a short summary :)
Sunday, October 12, 2014
Antiarrhythmic drugs are super tough to memorize.
Good thing is, we can imagine weird things and manage! :D
This post is about weird drawings and memory aids that will hopefully help you lovely medicos. Here it goes!
The Queen proclaims dis (this) pyramid.
For 1 A: Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide.
Queens are royalty, first class people. This helps me remember class 1 A as well.
Saturday, October 11, 2014
Memorizing AKT is very important for MBBS, since tuberculosis has a high prevalence in developing countries and in patients with AIDS.
Here's how I remember them!
RIPE for the drug names.
INH has 3 alphabets, so 300mg OD.
RiFampin has a F. F for four, F for five. 450mg OD.
Ethambutol starts with E. E for Eight. 800mg OD.
Pyrazinamide has the biggest name, so 1500mg OD or 750mg BD.
That's all! :)
Become the best you possibly can!
Friday, October 10, 2014
Fern test mnemonic:
Ferning appears due to presence of sodium chloride in the mucus secreted under Estrogen effect.
Spin on: Spinnbarkeit phenomenon is seen in Ovulatory mucus.
Secretack: Secretory mucus fractures under tension; this property is known as tack.
Thursday, October 9, 2014
Remember the initial letters of the disease - PJS.
P: Pigmented oral mucosa
J: Jejunal polyps
S: STK 11 defect
In physical examination of semen you must look whether the sperm "QVALiPhiFied" (Qualified)
Quantity: 3-5 ml
Viscosity: < 3
Appearance: Greyish white color
Liquefication time: 30 minutes
Fragrance | Odour: Characteristic seminal odour
Wednesday, October 8, 2014
Monday, October 6, 2014
Level 1: Uterosacral and cardinal ligaments
"Park two arcs"
Level 2: Pelvic fascia and paracolpos connects the vagina to the lateral pelvic wall through the arcus tendineus
Level three: Levator ani muscle supports lower one third of the vagina.
Saturday, September 20, 2014
Monday, September 15, 2014
Perforating veins were initially classified according to their level: lower third of the leg for low Cockett's perforators, middle third for medial gastrocnemius perforating veins and high Cockett's perforators, and finally, the upper third of the leg for Boyd's perforators.
In this video, I share a mnemonic on how to remember the names of these perforators.
Sunday, September 14, 2014
Saturday, September 13, 2014
Nephrotic syndrome is an important question asked frequently in the MBBS exam!
Here are some of my notes on nephrotic syndrome, in case you wanna refer and add some extra points to yours :)
Also included some memory aids and mnemonics that I use.
Lemme know if it helps!
Wednesday, September 10, 2014
Monday, September 8, 2014
Saturday, September 6, 2014
If you don't know about the Trendelenburg operation, in very short, during this surgery; all the tributaries of long saphenous vein at the saphenofemoral junction are ligated and divided. Then the long saphenous vein is "flush ligated" with the femoral vein and then the upper 10 cm of the long saphenous vein is excised.
Thursday, September 4, 2014
But if it's your first year in pharmacology, it's a lot to take in. I did make some memory aids for studying generations of cephalosporins but after a while, I promise you won't need them.
Wednesday, August 27, 2014
A complete mole is completely paternal.
Complete mole has completely lost maternal chromosomes.
Complete mole can become completely malignant - can be Choriocarcinoma.
Complete mole is completely a tumor with no fetus on gross examination.
Complete mole often has a uterine size large for dates.
Complete mole has a markedly elevated hCG.
Complete mole is associated with theca letein Cysts.
Complete mole is associated with preeclampsia (hypertension) and hyperthyroidism.
Wednesday, August 20, 2014
In this video I talk about normal labor and describe the events in detail.
Hope it helps :)
Here are some memory aids -
Sunday, August 17, 2014
Thursday, August 14, 2014
Wednesday, August 13, 2014
Let's get started!}
Defintion: Oral rehydration therapy is an inexpensive glucose and electrolyte solution as promoted by the World Health Organization that has reduced the number of deaths from dehydration due to diarrhea substantially.
Pathophysiology: Oral rehydration takes advantage of glucose-coupled sodium transport, a process for sodium absorption which remains relatively intact in infective diarrheas due to viruses or to enteropathogenic bacteria, whether invasive or enterotoxigenic. Glucose enhances sodium, and secondarily, water transport across the mucosa of the upper intestine.
Monday, August 11, 2014
Sunday, August 10, 2014
First of all, do you know which two leads should be looked at to determine whether axis is in the normal quadrant or if it is Left Axis Deviation (LAD) or Right Axis Deviation (RAD)?
Look at lead I and lead II. Sounds simple! ^__^
An upright (positive) QRS in leads I and II is normal (–30 degrees to +105 degrees).
In left-axis deviation, there is an upright QRS in lead I and a downward (negative) QRS in lead II (< –30 degrees).
In right-axis deviation, there is a downward QRS in lead I and an upright QRS in lead II (> +105 degrees).
How do I remember this? @_@
Thumbs up method: Lead I = Left thumb, Lead II = Right thumb.
Wait, why lead I is left thumb and lead II is the right thumb?
Because left is a smaller word and it gets the smaller number, that is, one!
Right has more alphabets and it gets the bigger number, that is, two.
Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb up (II) = Normal.
Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb down (II) = LAD.
Left thumb down (I) + Right thumb up (II) = RAD.
Left leaves, right returns.
Have a splendid week everyone < 3
Saturday, August 9, 2014
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, with the exception of aspirin, are avoided in the setting of myocaridal infarction.
Thursday, August 7, 2014
1st visit around 16 weeks
2nd visit between 24-28 weeks
3rd visit at 32 weeks
4th visit at 36 weeks
Sunday, August 3, 2014
The front of our hand is innervated by the Median and Ulnar nerves which come from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus.
However, the back of the hand is innervated mostly by the Radial nerve which comes from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The posterior cord carries the maximum number of nerve roots, that is, C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.
The radial nerve provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand so I guess it's better to check temperature with a nerve with maximum representative nerve roots. I assume if one or two roots are not working properly, say C8 & T1, the other roots from the same nerve will compensate for it.
Thursday, July 31, 2014
Tuesday, July 29, 2014
Take the numbers after the decimal, 35 - 45; and that's your pCO2.
Divide 45 by 2, approx 22; and that's your bicarbonate levels.
Multiply 45 by 2, that is, 90; and that's your pO2.
So in summary -
pH: 7.35 - 7.45
PCO2: 33 - 45 mm Hg
PO2: 75 - 105 mm Hg
Serum bicarbonate: 22 - 28 mEq/L
Eid mubarak to everyone :)
Updated on 11th June, 2016: Illustration
|Normal arterial blood gas value mnemonic|
Wednesday, July 23, 2014
Tuesday, July 22, 2014
Sunday, July 20, 2014
Monday, July 14, 2014
Sunday, July 6, 2014
We'll be learning on how to remember some signaling pathways of endocrine hormones =D
Let's get started!
MAP kinase pathway mnemonic:
"I intrinsically try to map growth"
Intrinsic tyrosine kinase - Insulin & growth factors (IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF) - MAP kinase pathway!
JAK-STAT signaling pathway mnemonic:
JAK reminds me of a jack ass. I imagine a jack pig instead =P
Prolactin, Immunomodulators (e.g., cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN), Growth hormone.
If you can't remember the immunomodulators, just think STAT!
sTaT has two T's which should remind you of "Tins and Ters"
Tins - Erythropoietin, prolactin, thrombopoietin, leptin
Ters - Interferons, Interleukins
And another animal - rat.
This'll help you remember that it is a receptor-associated tyrosine kinase!
So remember 3 animals - Jackass, pig & rat. You should be good :)
Hope you're doing well & see you in the next post =D
Tuesday, June 24, 2014
Spermatic Cord in males, O looks like a round for round ligament in females and Ilioinguinal nerve.
Contents of the spermatic cord? Try VAN!
Pampiniform plexus of Veins
Remains of processus Vaginalis
Artery to the vas
Testicular artery! *meow*
Sympathetic plexus around artery to the vas
Hey everyone! I have surgery rotations going on. Was studying hernia today & hence the post :D
Did you guys know that the midpoint of the inguinal ligament & mid inguinal point are two completely different locations?
The midpoint of inguinal ligament is halfway between the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) and the pubic tubercle. It is the position of femoral nerve, used in femoral nerve blocks.
(Because the last word is ligament.)
The mid-inguinal point is halfway between ASIS and the pubic symphysis. It is the position of the femoral artery, used in palpation of femoral pulse.
Plain old "Point for pulse"
(The last word is point.)
The mid-inguinal point is more medial than the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. (Liga is lateral xP)
That's all for now!
More stuff coming soon :D
Monday, June 23, 2014
Before you start reading, make sure you have (a little) general idea on what they look like & where they are used.. Because otherwise it'll sound completely bonkers! You make ask any doubts in the comments section below :)
Also you are free to contribute any crazy mnemonics you've made while learning these & we'll update this section accordingly! Have fun ^__^
Kocher's forceps mnemonic.
I call it Ko-chew.
You need teeth for chewing.
And that's how I remember that Kocher's looks like an artery forceps except for the apposing tooth in the tip.
Sunday, June 22, 2014
We'll be learning about chelating agents today!
The antidote for copper poisoning is pencillamine.
How do I remember that?
Penicillamine - Copper.
Dimercaprol is also known as British Anti Lewisite.
"BAL GAL" (It rhymes lol) or "British gal" is my mnemonic for remembering for which toxins' treatment it is used!
British Anti Lewisite - Gold, Arsenic, Lead.
Sometimes you find the answer in the word itself!
diMERcaprol - MERcury.
Friday, June 13, 2014
There are certain drugs which are unique and that is why remembering mechanism of action or their pharmacological property becomes very difficult :/
I talk about how to remember them in this video! ^_^
The drugs I talk about are - Finasteride, Flutamide, Baclofen, Dantrolene, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol. A mnemonic thingy which helps you not get confused =P
I hope you enjoy the video.
And if you do use this tip to make a merge words memory aid, don't forget to share it with us! :)
Friday, June 6, 2014
Wednesday, June 4, 2014
Bacterial vaginosis: Difference between Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardenella vaginalis with mnemonic
Monday, June 2, 2014
We measure the L:S ratio in the amniotic fluid to check for fetal lung maturity.
The concentration of lecithin and sphingomyelin is equal till 32–33 weeks gestation after which the lecithin concentration begins to increase significantly while sphingomyelin remains nearly the same.
An L:S ratio of 2 or more indicates fetal lung maturity and a relatively low risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome, and an L/S ratio of less than 1.5 is associated with a high risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome.
Not something you forget, but this is how it plays in my head - Phosphatidylcholine Peaks, Sphingomyelin remains the Same.
It also helps you remember that lecithin is made up of phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine.
(Sometimes, examiners may use basic biochemical compounds to test whether you know what they are made of.. That's when you show them what you are made of as well B)
Sunday, June 1, 2014
Sunday, May 25, 2014
Saturday, May 17, 2014
Minimum alveolar concentration, blood gas partition coefficient, AV gradient of anaesthetics simplified
This is what I understood. I hope it helps you understand as well =)
Saturday, May 3, 2014
Testosterone converts the Wolffian ducts into male accessory structures.
Mnemonic: There is a L in LH and Leydig.
If you flip around the letter L, it looks like a T.
FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce Sperm.
Mnemonic: There is a S in FSH, Sertoli, and Sperm.
Inhibin is secreted from the Sertoli cells and it inhibits FSH secretion.
Mnemonic: sertoli ends in I for Inhibin.
Sertoli cells secrete MIF that inhibit female paramesonephric duct development.
Mnemonic: sertoli ends in I for mullerian Inhibiting factor (MIF).
Which cell secretes what? A simplified ovarian cycle comic video
Which cell secretes what? Gastric mucosa histology mnemonics