Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Why does hypophosphatemia cause an increased affinity for oxygen in the blood?

The mechanism for this is very fascinating.

Remember the reaction that generates 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-BPG)?

Submissions: Endocrinology notes

Here are some more!

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Submissions: Fever with rash in childhood mnemonic

Mnemonic for fever with rash in childhood is, "MEEK SCREAMER"

Dealing with stress and studying before exams for medical students

"I am overwhelmed with exams. I have an anatomy exam coming up. I am slowly beginning to lose hope. Advice would be very much appreciated, thank you!" -Asked on Tumblr

Medicine does get overwhelming. Mostly because no matter how much you study, you will always feel under prepared. It's normal to feel this way.

But don't let it get to you. This part is important because if you feel hopeless, you won't work as much as you should and the guilt will feedback. You need to break the cycle and focus on what's in front of you. There is always hope.

Take a deep breath. Say this aloud - "I've got this. I can do this."

Exercise. Exercise gives you endorphins. Endorphins make you happy. Happy people kill exams!
(Do 20 jumps right now and then read further :D )

Laugh. It's a mature defense mechanism. You'll learn it in psychology. (Another reason for you to survive anatomy right now - so you can read new things next year!)
Acknowledge that you're stressed, laugh about it and be okay with it. Or pretend to be. Fake it till you make it. (PS: If you fake laughter, you'll end up laughing for real.)

Smile. Look at this smiley (:
It's smiling at you, please smile back!
Laughing and smiling alone is a HUGE stress buster.

Tissue plasminogen activator mnemonic

Greetings people!

Tissue plasminogen activator is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the enzyme responsible for clot breakdown.

It is used in the treatment of embolic or thrombotic stroke.
Contraindicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma. The antidote for tPA in case of toxicity is epsilon aminocaproic acid.

Mnemonic is, "TPA"

T - Thrombotic and embolic stroke (Use)
P - Plasmin (Mechanism of action)
A - Aminocaproic acid (Antidote)

The dose mnemonic is, "TPA" again!

T for ten:
10% of dose given as bolus.

P mirrored looks like a 9:
0.9 mg/kg dose, maximum 90 mg.

A for an hour:
Rest of the dose is given as an infusion lasting for 60 minutes.

That's all!
-IkaN

Monday, December 29, 2014

Dominant hemisphere and handedness

Hello!
This is practical exam related concept.

In a patient with neurological symptoms, you'd like to know whether the person is left handed or right handed. Why?

Dominant hand is important in medicine because it helps us figure out the dominant hemisphere - especially, in patients with stroke.

People who are right handed have their left cerebral hemisphere dominant. 70% left handed people are left hemisphere dominant.

To figure out handedness, you can ask the person with which hand he writes. If illiterate - You can ask with which hand he prefers to eat, combs hair, etc.

Threading a needle is an excellent way to determine handedness because very frequently people tend to hold the thread in the dominant hand and hold the needle with the non dominant hand.

That's all!
I'm left cerebral hemisphere dominant. You?
-IkaN

Submissions: Microbiology notes

More submitted notes here! :)

Submissions: Cardiovascular system notes

If you cannot read or understand anything or want me to send you a picture of any chart, just let me know! - Dr. Neelofer

Lines of Zahn

Question: Does a recent thrombus contain lines of Zahn?

Asked by: Maham

Answer: Yes.

Submissions: Hematology and Oncology notes

More notes. Yaay! Submitted to us by Dr. Neelofer.

Submissions: Reproductive system notes

These were submitted to us by Dr. Neelofer.

Saturday, December 27, 2014

Breath sounds mnemonic

Breath sounds! 

Vesicular sounds:
Inspiration is longer than expiration. No pause in between.
They are normal. 

Mnemonic:
VE is short. (Expiration is short)
VesI is long. (Inspiration is long)

Bronchial breath sounds:
Inspiration and expiration occupy the same duration of time and are separated by a pause. 
Heard in: Consolidation or a large cavity. 

Mnemonic:
B for Bronchial, B for Both are equal.

Broncho-vesicular sounds:
Both are equal with a pause.
Heard in: Bronchial asthma, Emphysema. 
Mnemonic:
The B for Both are equal. The hyphen reminds me of the pause.

That's all!
Everything is awesome :D
-IkaN

Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Side effects of atypical antipsychotics mnemonic

Hello!

In this post, I'll be talking about some side effects of antipsychotics and a few mnemonics that help me remember the same!

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) treatment mnemonic

"HI BCR ABL"

Submissions: USMLE notes

Hello... This is Neelofer.
This is especially for all those people who are preparing for Step 1 and reading First Aid 2014.
It will save tons of your time. (I have been preparing these mnemonics since September 2014 or so!)
It would be best if one opens First Aid 2014 along with these mnemonics. Good luck!! :)

Monday, December 22, 2014

Triangles of the neck diagram and mnemonic

Hello!
This post focuses only on boundaries of various triangles in the neck. Let's do this!

Triangles of the neck

Thursday, December 18, 2014

How to make concise medical notes

Making concise notes is easy!

Write key words, no sentences allowed.
Use arrows, mini organs instead of words.

Flow charts are awesome.

Draw diagrams, write points in it.
Number your points, so that you have a nice flow while revising what you wrote.

Here's an example -



Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Trichomonas vaginalis mnemonic

Hello!
I make lists of words so that I remember about them (especially for theory exams!)
Here's another list for Trichomonas - Key word, "TRICHOMONAS"

Tubal ectopic pregnancy mnemonic

Hello.
We'll be learning some points and concepts about tubal ectopic pregnancy today! I tied em up together in a mnemonic, "TUBAL"

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Pathology brain tumors mnemonic

Hello, my favorite brainy people of the internet!
We'll be talking about some brain tumors today.
All of the mnemonics might not work for you, so take only what you need :)

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Fothergills repair or Manchester operation mnemonic

Hello everyone!
We'll be learning about one of the operations used in the treatment of vaginal prolapse.
It's Fothergills operation and I'll be sharing a mnemonic I use to remember the points about the operation.
Fothergills repair is also known as Manchester operation.
So the mnemonic for Fothergills repair is, "MANCHESTer"

Thursday, December 11, 2014

What is the significance of pain during child birth?

Question:
What is the need of pain during delivery of a baby? I'm not asking the physiological mechanism. I believe that nature doesn't make a process painful unnecessarily and I wish to understand the importance.
Asked by:
Rahu Ketu
Answer:
To help make the essential arrangements for the birth of the child.
Insight:
To make it simpler for you, I'll tell you what happens when the pregnant woman does not experience labor pains. It's called precipitate labor. You'll read about it in forensic and medical toxicology in second year.

Hirsutism mnemonic

The mnemonic for causes of hirsutism is, "Hair On Chin"

Dermoid cyst mnemonic

The mnemonic to remember points to be written on dermoid cyst is, "DERMOID CYST"

Pagets disease of the breast mnemonic

Hey!

Anybody reading pagets disease of the breast?

Pica mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "PICA"

Pallor
Poor motor and mental development
Psychological problems
Parental neglect
Pregnancy
Poverty
Poisoning (lead)

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Med school inspiration - My first story

Hey guys.
I'll be writing a series on inspirational stories and study tips this year. I'll try to keep them short (Except this one, it's long!)

Since this is my first post, I'll share my first story with you. From the time I entered medical school.
I was a normal, excited and happy to be in medical school kid, just like everyone else.

During terms, I studied causally and attempted the exam. I got my results - I had failed in physiology. My anatomy and biochemistry score was average too.

Yes, I was disheartened. Filled with disappointment. I was an outstanding pre-med. How could I fail in first year med school?

I'll spare you the details about the drowning-in-sadness, frustrated, self loathing me and skip to when I decided to be awesome (I don't quite remember when the transition happened.)

The first thing I did was that I tried to figure out where I went wrong - self analysis.

I realized that medical school needed a little more hard work than before. I had poke-evolved to a new course. I needed to evolve my skills too.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Heberden’s and Bouchard’s Nodes Mnemonic

Heberden’s nodes are present in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints, while Bouchard’s nodes are present in the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints.
Here's a mnemonic for it!

Bones that undergo avascular necrosis mnemonic

Hello!
The bones that are at risk for avascular necrosis are:
Head of femur
Body of Talus
Scaphoid (Preiser's disease)
Here's a mnemonic for it!

Measles mnemonic

Hello vaccinated people!
Let's talk about signs and symptoms of measles (That you'll never experience because you are vaccinated!)
Prodromal phase of measles mnemonic, "MEASLES"
Measles
Elevation of temperature
Acute onset
Spots (Koplik spots)
Lacrimation
Eyes are reddened
Sneezing

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Thumb sucking sequelae mnemonic

Thumb sucking sequelae mnemonic - Damp thumb

Digital deformity
Dental problems
Decreased alveolar bone growth
Anterior open bite
Altered growth of facial bones
Mucosal injury
Paronychia
Psychological sequelae

Hydrops fetalis mnemonic

The mnemonic for causes is, "H FETALIS"
Hemolytic disease of new born
Fibroelastosis (Endocardial fibroelastosis)
Ebsteins anomaly
Trisomy 13, 18, 21
TORCH infections
Anemia
Asphyxia
Alpha thalassemia (Barts)
Lysosomal storage disease
Leukemia
Idiopathic
Skeletal abnormalities

Vitamin C and Scurvy mnemonic

We'll be learning all about vitamin C today!

Random facts about Vitamin C:
Citrus fruits and cabbage are sources
Cooking destroys vitamin C
Collagen synthesis
Capillary intercellular matrix formation
Chew (Bones and teeth development)

So many C's!

Vitamin C deficiency was seen in people who travelled the seas (C's, get it?) because they didn't have a fresh stock of green leafy vegetables.

Since scurvy was also seen in pirates, the mnemonic for deficiency of vitamin C is my favorite pirate -  Captain Jack Sparrow!

Saturday, December 6, 2014

Thalassemia blood picture mnemonic

Here's a mnemonic on the peripheral blood smear findings seen in Thalassemia!

Dengue fever, DHF, DSS and WHO criteria mnemonic


WHO criteria for diagnosis of dengue fever
All three of these should be present:
1. Fever
2. Two or more of the following clinical symptoms (See below, HARM mnemonic)
3. Positive serology or occurrence with same time and place as other confirmed cases of dengue.

The mnemonic for symptoms is, "HARMS" -
Headache
Hemolytic tendencies (Ecchymoses, purpura)
Arthralgia
Retro orbital pain
Rash
Myalgia
S part is for labs, I clubbed it together for completion -
Serology for dengue +ve
Short of WBC's (Leucopenia)

Hemolytic face mnemonic

Hemolytic face mnemonic

Minor clinical problems observed in normal infants during first week of life illustration

We'll be learning about cute lil kids today!

My drawing is not that cute, but children are.

They have some findings which are normal and require no treatment. I have illustrated these findings in the pictures below.

Friday, December 5, 2014

Developmental milestones mnemonic: Copies, draws, scribbles!

Draw this once or twice and you've mastered another milestone!

Developmental milestones mnemonic: Pincer grasp

Very short post of the day!
Pincer grasp is achieved by the infant by 8-11 months of age. I remember 10 months because it's a mid point.
The thumb stands for 1 & the other fingers make an 0. That's how I remember pincer grasp is achieved around 10 months of age!

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Total iron dose infusion formula (Haldane and Ganzoni) mnemonic

Hi everyone!
We'll be learning about an iron and anemia related topic today.

When a patient has severe anemia, you need to calculate the TDI (Total dose infusion) for parenteral therapy.

And there are various formulas with all sorts of numbers in em.
I'm allergic to memorization but I love memory aids! ;)
Let's start with the formulas!

Haldane formula for TDI = 0.3 x weight (lbs) x (100 -  Hb %) + 50%

Haldane's formula mnemonic:
H has 3 strokes | - |, so 0.3 is the multiplication factor.
Haldane has a L, for weight in Lbs.
Haldane has a H, H for Hundred. So hundred minus Hb %.
Add half of hundred, 50%, for stores.

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Hydatidiform mole (Complete vesicular mole) mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "HYDATIDIFORMS"

Hyatidiform mole mnemonic

Treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "STOMACH"

S: Shock treatment
Stomach wash - Adrenaline in Saline given through Ryle's tube
Sclerotherapy
Surgery - Under running of the bleeder using vicryl; ligation of splenic vessels and splenectomy; partial gastrectomy and gastroduodenostomy

T: Transfusion of blood (Comes under shock treatment, it's actually a filler)
Tube (Stomach wash using Ryle's tube)

O: Other stuff you could give, like drugs

M: Mesoprostil injection (It's a cryoprotectant)

A: Angiographic embolization of gastroduodenal artery

C: Cauterization (Endoscopic)

H: Hemoclip, Heater probe

Treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding mnemonic

We'll be taking about upper gastrointestinal bleeding today!
I am theory oriented these days. This is just a general guide to fill pages in my exam. Write everything you can remember!
The mnemonic is, "UPPER"

Sugiura Futagawa operation mnemonic

The mnemonic is, really weird. Read at your own risk :P

SUGiura FUTagawa

Surgery for acute bleeding varices and portal hypertension that cause portoazygos disconnection mnemonic

Good morning!
Remembering these names is not necessary.
I did it just to stand out in the exam. (Coz the theory examiner be like, "She remembers the name so she remembers the surgeries too!" xD )
That being clear, let's mug this up!

Monday, December 1, 2014

Intussusception mnemonic

How to remember certain signs and symptoms of intussusection?
Mnemonic!

"SUSCEPTION"

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Fistula in ano mnemonics

This post is all about fistula in ano!

Fournier's gangrene mnemonic

Hello!
Hope you're having a wonderful day!

I make lists of words so that I remember about them (Especially, for theory exams!)

Risk factors for carcinoma stomach mnemonic

Hey guys!
This is one of those "Make sure you write this" checklists I make.
Giving theory exams at the moment so I have that mindset xD

Anyway, the mnemonic is, "STOMACH"

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Hematemesis mnemonic

This mnemonic is for covering the unusual causes - DO NOT FORGET THE USUAL CAUSES LIKE ULCER AND VARICES.

Okay, now that the caps lock warning is read, let's get started :P

The mnemonic is, "UV HEMATEMESIS"

Paraumbilical hernia mnemonic

More of a checklist on what you need to know and write in exams!
The mnemonic is, "PARAUMBILICAL"

Pyloric stenosis mnemonic

Pyloric stenosis mnemonic
The mnemonic is, "PYLORIC"

Clinical vignette clues for multiple choice questions: Infected food and food poisoning.

Hello!
This is for all those who are studying bacteriology.
Certain foods can transmit very specific infections, and examiners like to go after it. Make sure you know this list!

Food.. Infected food.

Thank you

Thank you. To all my readers.

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Tuberculosis spine mnemonic (Potts disease)

I made this for my reference, so that I could make sure that I'd be able to write all the points, in case a LAQ was asked about it.

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Multiple sclerosis mnemonic

Things to know about multiple sclerosis -

When I made this, it was more like my check list on what to write in my exam. So I wouldn't exactly call it a mnemonic.

The words keep recurring in the mnemonic but I wrote them twice anyway (More revision, more recall, yaay!)

Multiple sclerosis
Upper motor neuron weakness
Uthoff's phenomenon
Lhermitte sign
Tingling numbness
Intention tremors
Posterior column features
Pulfrich phenomenon
Lhermitte sign
Exercise worsens symptoms

Scanning speech
Cerebellar signs
Continence problem
Lhermitte sign
Exercise worsens symptoms
Remitting features
Optic neuritis
Spasticity
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Scanning speech

That's all!
There is another simplified, "SINS" mnemonic as well.

-IkaN

Updated on 3rd December, 2014: Pulfrich phenomenon, suggested by Sujay Nigudkar

Friday, November 21, 2014

Nail disorders, diagnosis and abnormalities due to systemic diseases mnemonic

Hey girls and guys! We'll be learning about your girly and manly nails today.
Let's get started :)

Beau's line mnemonic:
"BEAUTIFUL"
BEAU's line
Transverse (linear)
Indented (depressed)
Forward (moves distally with growth of nail)
Undernourished (seen in malnourished patients)
Lines xD
Extra: It is seen in major illness or trauma. Coronary artery disease, hypotension and Raynauds phenomenon are a few causes.

Treatment of thyrotoxic crisis mnemonic

Hi. It's me again.

The mnemonic is, ABCD PQRS.

Antibiotics (To combat infection)
Benzodiazepines (For agitation)
Cooling (External cooling, no salicylates)
Carbimazole
Digoxin (For cardiac failure)

What is the function of thyroid peroxidase?

Oxidation - Losing the negativity around you (For new relationships with good aminoacids like tyrosine) =D

Organification - Because Iodine is just a molecule and can’t be used by organs alone. It needs to be "organified" :P

Coupling - Why stay alone when love is in the air? <3

Insulin analogues and preparations mnemonic

Short acting insulin mnemonic:
"NO LAG"
Novalog
Lispro (Humalog)
Aspart (Novalog)
Glusiline
Alternatively, "NO LAGgeRS" mnemonic includes:
Regular insulin
Semilente

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Types of pulse mnemonic

Hey there.
In this post, I'll be mumbling about the character or quality of various types of pulse seen in medical physical examination. Since this is a super long post, let's get started -

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) and club foot surgical treatment mnemonic

The mnemonic for club foot is, "ADMiT IT IS CTEV" and for surgical treatment of CTEV is "STRAIGHTED".

I talk about them in the video. 

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Ransons criteria for prognosis of acute pancreatitis mnemonic

I talk about Ransons prognostic criteria for gallstone and non gall stone pancreatitis in this video.

It focuses on how to remember the various numerical values and how to memorize the mnemonic itself lol.

The crossed paralyses: Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber & Raymond-Cestan brainstem syndromes mnemonic

Hello! The images below help you to remember these syndromes!

Millard-Gubler: Facial palsy and contralateral hemiparesis.

Millard-Gubler mnemonic

Monday, November 17, 2014

Adverse effects and contraindications of steroids mnemonic

G - Glaucoma (On typical use)
L - Limb muscle atrophy
U - Ulcer (Peptic ulcer)
C - Cushing syndrome
O - Osteoporosis
C - Cataract (On systemic use)
O - Osteoporosis (Avascular necrosis of head of femur)
R - c/I in Renal failure
T - c/I in Tuberculosis
I - Impairs healing
C - c/I in CHF
O- Oedema
I - Infections (Immunosuppressive)
D - Diabetes mellitus
S - Suppression of HPA axis

This mnemonic was submitted by Parth Mali. Tumaro abhar, Parth!

Cerebellar lesion clinical signs and symptoms mnemonic

Hello brainy people of the planet.
There's something lovely in your skull that helps keep you steady.
That's your cerebellum!
(We'll be talking about it today!)
Something lovely that helps you study?
That's your cerebrum!
And Medicowesome (Not too sure about the second bit xD)
Let's get to it!

The mnemonic for remembering the clinical signs and symptoms of Cerebellar disease is -
"IT'S Eyes Rebound like a Pendulum."

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Colles fracture mnemonic

Hello fellow medical students!
Colles fracture is associated with a "Dinner fork" deformity so I remember the other eating utensil, the "Spoon" to memorize everything about Colles.

Somatostatinoma mnemonic

S for somatostatin, S for 3 S's!

Sugar: Diabetes mellitus
Stones: Cholecystolithiasis
Steatorrhoea

That's all!
Sugar, spice and everything nice :)
-IkaN

Whipple's triad mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "wHIpple'S"
H for hypoglycaemia in fasting state.
I to remind you that it is seen in insulinomas.
S for sugar less than 45 mg % and for Symptoms relieved by Glucose.

Alternatively, you can remember "HIS Whip" if you know what I mean ;)

-IkaN

Saturday, November 15, 2014

Charcot's triad mnemonic

Hello. This is a mini post... For CHArcot's!
Jaundice
Pain
Fever
Seen in ascending cholangitis.
That's all!
-IkaN

Exception to Courvoisier's law mnemonic

Hello!

Courvoisier's law states that in a patient with jaundice, if there is a palpable gallbladder, it is not due to stones.

Obviously, exception to the rule will be conditions with a stone and palpable gallbladder!

The mnemonic is, "DHE exception".
D: Double impacted stone - one in CBD and one in cystic duct, with mucocele of gallbladder.
H: Large stone in Hartmann's pouch.
E: Empyema gallbladder.

The rule ain't useful if the patient doesn't have a gallbladder (absence, previous cholecystectomy) or if the gallbladder is intrahepatic.

That's all!
'DHEm' rebellious conditions breaking rules xD
-IkaN

Saint's triad mnemonic

Just don't forget the D was from the word "triaD"
Because, you might forget.

Types of sequestrum

Since there isn't a complete post on it online, I thought I'd write about it.

Clinical features of tuberculosis spine mnemonic

Here's the illustration!

Tuberculosis spine mnemonic

I made this for my reference, so that I could make sure that I'd be able to write all the points, in case a LAQ was asked about it.

Monday, November 10, 2014

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Ghon's complex in primary tuberculosis mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "GHONS"
GHoN for Giant Hilar lymph Nodes and lymphatics.
S for Subpleural parenchymal lesion.

Remember that the subpleural lesion is located in the lower part of the upper lobe, upper part of lower lobe or the middle lobe.
 
We are so used to learning that tuberculosis bacilli love living in the aerated upper part of the upper lobe that we might, by mistake, choose that option in a MCQ asking about the primary complex. Keep in mind that the infection in upper part of upper lobe is secondary reactivation TB, not primary.

Mnemonic for Ghons focus vs Ghons complex: 
Ghons compLex consists of Lymph nodes and Ghons focuS is just the Site of primary lesion in the lung. 

That's all! 

-IkaN

Filariasis mnemonic

Hi everybody!
These are random mnemonics I use to remember certain points about filariasis. Not sure if it'll help everybody. But uploading anyway!

"Filariasis fills the blood at night."
To remember that Microfilaria can be demonstrated in peripheral smear only at night.

"Microfilaria fills microvessels (capillaries) of the lung"
And cause tropical pulmonary eosinophilia!

Manifestations of filariasis
Remember 3 L's:
Lymphatic filariasis (caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi)
Loiasis (caused by Loa loa)
Light (light, sight, blindness - river blindness caused by Onchocerca volvulus)

So complicated names!

Diethylcarbamazine dose mnemonic:
DEC, D-E-six, 6 mg/kg for 21 days.

That's all!
-IkaN

Scabies treatment mnemonic

Hello.
The mnemonic for this itchy disease is the word, "SCABIES" itself. I divided it into two parts, the scabicides and the extra drugs used for pruritus, keratolysis, etc. The mnemonic is the same for both.

Scabicides: "SCaBIes"
S for Sulphur ointment

C for Crotamiton

B for Benzyl benzoate

b flipped upside down looks like a p, for permethrin

I for Ivermectin

I also looks like a L, for Lindane

Extras: "SCAbies"
S for Salicylic acid
S for Salicylates
C for Calamine lotion
C for Corticosteroids
A for Antihistamines

Notes:
Use 5% permethrin.
L looks like 1, so 1% Lindane.

Ivermectin (200 micro g/kg) single oral dose. Patients with crusted Scabies may require two or more doses of ivermectin.

Salicylic acid is a keratolytic; allows good penetration of scabicides.

Antihistamines, salicylates, and calamine lotion relieve itching during treatment, and topical glucocorticoids are useful for the pruritus that lingers after effective treatment.

That's all!
-IkaN

Short acting bronchodilators and long acting bronchodilators mnemonic

Happy Saturday everyone!
Was studying bronchial asthma and COPD today :)

Metro are trains & trains are long. So any drug with "metro" like word is long acting.
List of long acting bronchodilators:
Salmeterol
Formoterol or Eformoterol
Arformoterol

Testicular tumors surgical management mnemonic

Because scrotal approach for biopsies could disseminate testicular tumors, Chevassu suggested inguinal exploration and occlusion of the testicular vessels before biopsy of suspicious lesions.

I use a pun to remember this - "Chew vessels" to prevent seeding: Chevassou.

Other facts you must remember are - Seminomas are radiosensitive. They respond to chemotherapy with cisplatin as well.

And that teratomas have frequent lymph node involvement.

That's all!

-IkaN

Remembering the autonomic innervation of the bladder

"PISS" is my memory aid for remembering, Parasympathetics make you Pee from S2 - S4 segments. (Two S's in piss, so S2)

So the opposite, sympathetic L1 and L2, allow urine to collect and are inhibitory to the detrusor muscle.

That's all!
-IkaN

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Treatment of organophosphorus poisoning mnemonic

Hey!

I focus on how to remember the doses of the medications in this post.

Atropine. aTWOpine. 2 mg IV every 5-10 minutes till full atropinisation occurs.

Pralidoxime is also known as 2-PAM. Two. So 20 mg/kg in 20 minutes is the loading dose. Half that, 10 mg/kg/hr is the maintenance.

Remember to remove the patient from further exposure and wash the skin, give gastric lavage.
Also catheterize the patient before atropine is given (viva concept).

For symptoms of muscarinic poisoning, the common mnemonics are "DUMBBELLS" and "Cholinergics make you leaky"

That's all!
-IkaN

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Leptospirosis and Weil's disease mnemonic

Mnemonic for leptospirosis
"LEPTOSPIRO "
Lymphadenopathy
Encephalitis (And meningitis)
Pain in abdomen
Transmitted through animal urine
Occipital headache
Suffusion (conjunctival)
Pericorneal reddening, Photophobia
Iridocyclitis
Retro orbital pain, Rash
O looks like a heart for bradycardia

Tuberous sclerosis mnemonic

Tuberous sclerosis makes me think of tubers. Tuber is a plant structure that stores nutrients. Like sweet potatoes. And you know who it reminds me of? Mrs. Potato head from Toy Story!
Tuberous sclerosis mnemonic

Epidural anaesthesia mnemonic

Hello!

The mnemonic is, "EPIDURAL"

EP: Epidural catheter is Placed and anaesthetic is infused

I for Indwelling catheter for additional injections later

D for delay (A 15-30 min delay in onset is seen with epidural anaesthesia)

U for urinary retention, a complication of epidural anaesthesia (Another complication that you must remember is hypotension)

R for Repeated prolonged infusion that can be given with epidural anaesthesia

A for Analgesia (Epidural is used for labor analgesia, post op pain and cancer pain)

L for Lidocaine (The letter L has two lines, so two percent is the dose. Two also reminds me of Touhy needle, used for the anaesthesia)
Another commonly used anaesthetic is 0.5% Bupivacaine.

That's all!
*sings* I've become so numb
-IkaN

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Tocolytic agents mnemonic

Happy Tuesday everyone!

The mnemonic for tocolytic drugs is, "ABC MNO"
A: Atobican
B : Beta mimetics like ritodrine (return to dreams)
C : Calcium channel blockers like Nifedipine
C : Cyclooxygenase inhibitors like Indomethacin
M : Magnesium sulphate
N : NO donors like Glyceryl trinitrate
O : Oxytocin antagonists like Atociban

A and O repeat twice, I wrote them anyway because they give a good flow :)

That's all!

I was asked an MCQ on this concept in my prelims. They asked which of the following drugs is NOT a tocolytic and they put 4 drugs. So it's important to know ALL the tocolytic drugs.

-IkaN

Cullen's sign, Grey Turner's sign and Fox's sign seen in pancreatitis mnemonic

These signs are seen in acute pancreatitis. Having a mnemonic to remember them makes me feel complete!

Cullen's sign mnemonic:
If you complete the C, it looks like an O; umbilicus looks like an O. So pancreatic enzymes seeping through the falciform ligament causing discoloration around the umbilicus is the Cullen's sign.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Hormones that have similar structure and thus clinical effects

ACTH and MSH:
In Addison's disease, increase in ACTH causes hyperpigmentation because it is similar to MSH.

HCG and TSH:
Patients with choriocarcinoma can present with hyperthyroidism. It's because HCG is similar to TSH.

Pitocin and pitressin:
The drug oxytocin can cause water retention because it is similar to vasopressin.

These are all I can think of for now, lemme know if you guys know any other hormones that are so similar that they are able to cause similar effects in our body.

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Status Epilepticus mnemonic

The drugs and the order in which they are used.
"Pam is funny and has a barbie."

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease mnemonic

I got this mnemonic online and found it very helpful.

I added some more information to it, my theory being, if I forget one manifestation; I have another one for backup.

Treatment of carcinoma penis mnemonic

When total scrotectomy with orchidectomy is done along with total amputation of the penis - it is known as "Sir Piersey Gold" operation.
I remember, "Scrotum Penis Gone" to remember the initials of this eponymous surgery. It prevents frequent dermatitis of the scrotal skin due to perineal urethrostomy and reduces sexual desire.
Young's radical operation for carcinoma penis is another name you have to remember:
The ilioinguinal lymph nodes bilaterally form a Y with the penis. (See image) Y for young's operation, that's how I remember!

Layers of hydatid cyst mnemonic and diagram

I somehow think of ALGae and PEE when I imagine the hydatid cyst, maybe because the cyst is fluid filled and algae grow in contaminated water. (My cue to write idk I am just weird!)

Anyway, that's your mnemonic.
Adventitia (Pseudocyst)
Laminated membrane (Ectocyst)
Germinal epithelium (Endocyst)

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Clinical manifestations of stroke within anterior circulation

Notes.

Causes of ischemic stroke

Random notes.

Treatment of MDR tuberculosis mnemonic

Hi everyone! 

This is a complicated mnemonic. Too many drugs but hopefully it will help you write a SAQ on it :)

Before I get to the mnemonic, here are some general principles. 

4 drugs to which the mycobacteria are susceptible should be used. 

6 months intensive phase is followed by a continuation phase for 18-24 months.
An injectable drug like kanamycin or streptomycin is dropped in the continuation phase.

1st group:
High-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are thought of as an adjunct for the treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis.

2nd group: Fluoroquinolones, of which the first choice is high-dose levofloxacin.

3rd group are the injectable drugs:
Capreomycin, amikacin, kanamycin.
Mnemonic: CAKe

4th group:
Cycloserine, aminosalicylic acid (PAS), thioamides (Ethionamide).
Mnemonic: CAT

If susceptibility to drugs is not available:
Give KEEPQ for 6 months and then PEEQ for 18 months (Drop the injectable, remember?)
Kanamycin
Ethionamide
Ethambutol
Pyrazinamide
Quinolone

If resistant to Rifampin and Isoniazid:
Give PEQS for 6 months and then PEEQ for 18 months.
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
Quinolone
Streptomycin
And then replace injectable Streptomycin with Ethionamide

If resistant to all first line drugs:
Quinolone + any one from CAKe + any two from CAT

That's all! 

-IkaN

Updated on 16th February, 2015:

Mnemonic for drug resistance in MDR TB:
HeR multi drug resistance. 
Resistance to H (Isoniazid) and R (Rifampin) is defined as MDR TB. 

Mnemonic for XDR TB:
Her extra fluorescent cake. 
Resistance to H (Isoniazid), R (Rifampin), any fluoroquinolone and one of the three second line injectable drugs (Capreomycin, Amikacin & Kanamycin) is defined as XDR or extensive drug resistance. 

Related post:

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Choledochal cyst types mnemonic

This was asked in my prelims.
Here's the text. Mnemonic in the picture.
Type-I cysts have been subclassified into 3 types.
Type IA shows marked cystic dilation of the entire extrahepatic biliary tree, with sparing of the intrahepatic ducts.
Type IB is defined by focal, segmental dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct.
Type-IC cysts are smooth fusiform dilations of the entire extrahepatic bile duct, usually extending from the pancreaticobiliary junction to the intrahepatic biliary tree.
Type-II cysts are discrete diverticuli of the extrahepatic duct with a narrow stalk connection to the CBD
Type-III cysts are also called choledochocele. They consist of dilation of the distal CBD that is confined to the wall of the duodenum, and often bulge into the duodenal lumen.
Type-IV cysts are multiple in nature and are further subdivided based on intrahepatic duct development.
Type-IVA cysts are multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic dilations.
Type-IVB cysts refer to multiple dilations of the extrahepatic biliary tree only.
Type-V CCs refer to Caroli disease, also known as communicating cavernous ectasia, which is multiple saccular or cystic dilations of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Classification of choledochal cysts mnemonic 

Monday, October 20, 2014

Foot drop (Notes)

Hi everyone!
These notes are messier than usual because I wasn't planning to upload them at first.
Lemme know in the comments if you don't understand something, I'll type it out for ya!
Related post: Peroneal nerve branches anatomy mnemonic

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Peripheral neuropathy definition and causes (MBBS notes)

Sundays are so good :)
Definition of mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy and mononeuritis multiplex
Various causes of peripheral neuropathy (I wrote the ones I found easy to remember ^_^ ) 


Updated on 19th October, 2014
Errata: Spelling of separate is wrong. 
And according to a reader, Azaz Patel, the definition isn't exactly appropriate because discrete anatomical delineation doesn't occur in neuropathy, especially the piamater part.

Haven't found any other definition on Google so I don't know :/
Lemme know if you guys have a good definition ^_^

That's all! 
-IkaN 

Thursday, October 16, 2014

What is the cause of reversal of sleep wake pattern in patients with cirrhosis?

This was asked in a viva.
So I did my usual Googling and found this as a satisfactory answer :)

Several mechanisms may be involved in the development of circadian abnormalities in cirrhosis, including the effect of gut-derived toxins on the brain and decreased sensorial inputs that entrain the circadian clock such as insufficient light exposure, social isolation, or low levels of activity and retinohypothalamic and endocrine (e.g., melatonin) abnormalities.

The sleep-wake cycle is one of the functions regulated by the circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, which has efferent connections that influence a large array of biological functions including the secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland.

For people who sleep “normal hours”, natural melatonin production peaks between 2 am and 4 am, with the peaks becoming smaller with advancing age. Normally melatonin is a natural sleep-inducing agent. Because daylight reduces melatonin production and blood levels of melatonin are usually high at night and low during the day.

In patients with cirrhosis, the diurnal plasma melatonin profile shows a significant delay in the onset of plasma melatonin increase and a delay in its peak nocturnal level. This displacement of the melatonin profile could be a reflection of a shift in the phase of the circadian clock.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Injuries that can occur due to fall on outstretched hand mnemonic

Hey everyone!
This question is frequently asked in orthopedics section of surgery.

For Rolling Stones fans, this mnemonic is lovely <3
For others, imagine trying to crush a rolling stone with your outstretched hand :P

"Been Crushing on Rolling Stones."
Bennetts fracture
Colles fracture
Collar bone fracture (rare)
Reverse Bennetts fracture
Rolando fracture
Smiths fracture
Scaphoid fracture

For the sake of completion, I would like to add other injuries associated with FOOSH:
Green stick fracture of distal radius
Epiphyseal fracture of distal radius
Ulnar collateral ligament injury

That's all!
-IkaN

Monday, October 13, 2014

What is the difference between menstrual regulation and vacuum evacuation?

What is the difference between menstrual regulation and vacuum evacuation?

I was reading gynaecology when I realized that the principles of surgical instrumentation for menstrual regulation are identical to those for first-trimester abortion done by using vacuum aspiration.

Both the procedures involve aspiration of contents of the uterine cavity by means of a plastic cannula called Karman's cannula.

So what's the difference?
Confirmation of pregnancy.

Menstrual Regulation (MR) is the treatment of the delayed menstrual period, to assure a non-pregnant state and a normal menstrual cycle the next time. It is early vacuum evacuation.

Vacuum aspiration is medical termination of pregnancy or abortion. Pregnancy is confirmed when this procedure is performed.

Why give it different names?

MR has an advantage in the countries where abortion is legally banned because it can be conducted without a confirmatory pregnancy test.

Additional info: MR is also used for some other clinical purposes, such as, for uterine biopsy, to treat incomplete abortions, to regularise the menses.

That's all!

This doubt was clarified by a friend's professor. Thanks!

-IkaN

Investigations in renovascular hypertension

Captopril enhanced radionucleotide renal scan.
Duplex doppler flow study.
MR angiography with gadolinium enhancements.
Spiral CT scan with IV contrast agents.

Renal angiogram is important in determining whether the renovascular hypertension is due to atherosclerosis or due to fibromuscular dysplasia.

Renal vein renin determination is important to assess the outcome of surgery.

That's all!
Just a short summary :)
-IkaN

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Antiarrhythmic drug classes mnemonic

Greetings people! 

Antiarrhythmic drugs are super tough to memorize.
Good thing is, we can imagine weird things and manage!  :D
This post is about weird drawings and memory aids that will hopefully help you lovely medicos. Here it goes!

Class I A antiarrhythmics mnemonic:
The Queen proclaims dis (this)  pyramid.
For 1 A: Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide.
Queens are royalty, first class people. This helps me remember class 1 A as well.


I also think A for active and active people have potential for more duration, associating the fact that class I A drugs prolong action potential duration.

Saturday, October 11, 2014

Antitubercular drugs mnemonic

Happy Saturday people!

Memorizing AKT is very important for MBBS, since tuberculosis has a high prevalence in developing countries and in patients with AIDS.

Here's how I remember them!

RIPE for the drug names.

For doses:
INH has 3 alphabets, so 300mg OD.

RiFampin has a F. F for four, F for five. 450mg OD.

Ethambutol starts with E. E for Eight. 800mg OD.

Pyrazinamide has the biggest name, so 1500mg OD or 750mg BD.

That's all! :)
Become the best you possibly can!
-IkaN

Related post:

Friday, October 10, 2014

Tests for ovulation mnemonic

Some random memory aids I made while studying infertility.

Fern test mnemonic:
Remember FErN.
Fern test
Estrogen
NaCl
Ferning appears due to presence of sodium chloride in the mucus secreted under Estrogen effect.

Spin on: Spinnbarkeit phenomenon is seen in Ovulatory mucus.

Secretack: Secretory mucus fractures under tension; this property is known as tack.

Basal body temperature mnemonic:
I remember progesterone is pyrogenic because they both start with P.
This helps me remember the drop in body temperature during ovulation, the rise in temperature during the Secretory phase. 
It also helps me know that during menstruation the progesterone levels and body temperature drop and if the temperature does not fall, it may be suggestive of conception.

That's all!
-IkaN 

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Tumors of colon and various polyposis syndrome mnemonic

Peutz Jegher's Syndrome mnemonic:
Remember the initial letters of the disease - PJS.
P: Pigmented oral mucosa
J: Jejunal polyps
S: STK 11 defect

Intermittent claudication notes

A mixie of points from various books. Hope it helps!

Semen report notes + mnemonic

In physical examination of semen you must look whether the sperm "QVALiPhiFied" (Qualified)
Quantity: 3-5 ml
Viscosity: < 3
Appearance: Greyish white color
Liquefication time: 30 minutes
pH: >7.2
Fragrance | Odour: Characteristic seminal odour

That's all!
-IkaN

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Type 1 neurofibromatosis mnemonic

Hello people!
I just finished illustrating this amazing mnemonic on neurofibromatosis I got online. Thought I'd share it with ya'll!

Darrow Yannet diagram: Doubt

Hi dentstudent!
I am on vacation and I can not add your question to the original post nor do I have Photoshop for the same.
So here's a temporary post for your doubt. Well update the original post once I get back home!

Breech delivery diagrams

Hi everyone!
These are some diagrams I made while reading about breech delivery. Hope it helps!

Monday, October 6, 2014

How to remember that the gene product of RAS is GTPase

Hi everyone!
Ras is a G protein, or a guanosine-nucleotide-binding protein. 
In the inactive state it is bound to the nucleotide guanosine diphosphate (GDP), while in the active state, Ras is bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

Clostridium perfringes toxins mnemonic

Clostridium perfringes produces an alpha toxin.
A for alpha
L for lecithin
P for phosphocholine
H for hemolytic

DeLancey supports of genital tract mnemonic

Mnemonic time! 

"You (U) sorta care for one"
Level 1: Uterosacral and cardinal ligaments

"Park two arcs"
Level 2: Pelvic fascia and paracolpos connects the vagina to the lateral pelvic wall through the arcus tendineus

"ThriLL"
Level three: Levator ani muscle supports lower one third of the vagina. 

Random tip time! 
When you write about the supports, make sure you mention the mechanical support (the axis), the muscular supports, the fibromuscular support and the peritoneal support as well. Extra points for those! 

Diagram time!

Monday, September 15, 2014

Types of perforators of the lower limb mnemonic

Perforating veins connect the superficial to the deep veins at a number of places in the leg.

Perforating veins were initially classified according to their level: lower third of the leg for low Cockett's perforators, middle third for medial gastrocnemius perforating veins and high Cockett's perforators, and finally, the upper third of the leg for Boyd's perforators.

In this video, I share a mnemonic on how to remember the names of these perforators.

Sunday, September 14, 2014

Treatment of Varicose veins mnemonic

Hey everyone!
Another one of my "Final year MBBS notes - remember & write everything I can in the theory paper" kind of post :D
We are learning how to remember various modalities of treatment of Varicose veins.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

Management of nephrotic syndrome (Mnemonic + notes for MBBS exam)

Happy Study Saturday people ^__^

Nephrotic syndrome is an important question asked frequently in the MBBS exam!
Here are some of my notes on nephrotic syndrome, in case you wanna refer and add some extra points to yours :)
Also included some memory aids and mnemonics that I use.
Lemme know if it helps!

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Surgery mnemonics

I'm planning to make this section of things from surgery that are so very hard to remember. Mostly, names of surgeries and stuff.

Surgical treatment of Achalasia cardia mnemonic
acHALasia has a HAL & it reminds me of HELler's operation. 
Heller's operation is esophagocardiomyotomy. 

Similar to Heller's operation is Ramstedt's operation for pyloric stenosis. Ramstedt's operation is pyloromyotomy.

Saturday, September 6, 2014

What does flush ligation mean?

I heard this word for the first time while I was reading Trendelenburg operation for varicose veins.

If you don't know about the Trendelenburg operation, in very short, during this surgery; all the tributaries of long saphenous vein at the saphenofemoral junction are ligated and divided. Then the long saphenous vein is "flush ligated" with the femoral vein and then the upper 10 cm of the long saphenous vein is excised.

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Cephalosporins mnemonic

I don't usually recommend mnemonics for remembering drug names because over time you get so used to them that you don't exactly need a mnemonic for it.

But if it's your first year in pharmacology, it's a lot to take in. I did make some memory aids for studying generations of cephalosporins but after a while, I promise you won't need them.

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Difference between partial and complete hydatidiform mole mnemonic

Hi everyone! Since you can completely confuse incomplete mole and complete mole, here's a memory aid for you! The trick is to remember one & the other one, is the other one. We'll remember complete mole.

A complete mole is completely paternal.
Complete mole has completely lost maternal chromosomes.
Complete mole can become completely malignant - can be Choriocarcinoma.
Complete mole is completely a tumor with no fetus on gross examination.
Complete mole often has a uterine size large for dates.
Complete mole has a markedly elevated hCG.
Complete mole is associated with theca letein Cysts.
Complete mole is associated with preeclampsia (hypertension) and hyperthyroidism.

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Normal labor: Mechanism on dummy pelvis and mnemonics

Hi everyone!
In this video I talk about normal labor and describe the events in detail.
Hope it helps :)



Here are some memory aids -

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Malnutrition: Waterlow Gomez classification menmonic

Hi everyone =)

We are going to learn how to remember various classification's of malnutrition in a silly way.. So let's get started!

First, Waterlow classification. Here it goes -

Waterlow classification menmonic

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Quad screen results, triple marker and trisomies mnemonic

If you suck at remembering the results of this test for various disorders, you are in the right place.

Quad screen interpretation with mnemonic

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

My low osmolarity ORS notes for MBBS exam and constituents of ORS mnemonic

{Learning is one thing and deciding what will you write in a written test is another. This is what I have decided to write in my MBBS exam if a short answer question SAQ or a long answer question LAQ on low osmolarity ORS is asked! I might actually do a notes label if time permits for most of important questions. But for now, here goes the first one.

Let's get started!}

Defintion: Oral rehydration therapy is an inexpensive glucose and electrolyte solution as promoted by the World Health Organization that has reduced the number of deaths from dehydration due to diarrhea substantially.

Pathophysiology: Oral rehydration takes advantage of glucose-coupled sodium transport, a process for sodium absorption which remains relatively intact in infective diarrheas due to viruses or to enteropathogenic bacteria, whether invasive or enterotoxigenic. Glucose enhances sodium, and secondarily, water transport across the mucosa of the upper intestine.

Monday, August 11, 2014

Why is Lasix NOT prescribed at night?

This was asked by my professor in a clinic today.

The answer is simple.. Why would you prescribe Furosemide in the morning or afternoon but not at night? Think! Think! Think!

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Evaluating axis from ECG (Mnemonic)

Hi everyone! We are going to learn how to determine the axis from an electrocardiogram =D

First of all, do you know which two leads should be looked at to determine whether axis is in the normal quadrant or if it is Left Axis Deviation (LAD) or Right Axis Deviation (RAD)?

Look at lead I and lead II. Sounds simple! ^__^

An upright (positive) QRS in leads I and II is normal (–30 degrees to +105 degrees).
In left-axis deviation, there is an upright QRS in lead I and a downward (negative) QRS in lead II (< –30 degrees).
In right-axis deviation, there is a downward QRS in lead I and an upright QRS in lead II (> +105 degrees).

How do I remember this? @_@

Thumbs up method: Lead I = Left thumb, Lead II = Right thumb.

Wait, why lead I is left thumb and lead II is the right thumb?
Because left is a smaller word and it gets the smaller number, that is, one!
Right has more alphabets and it gets the bigger number, that is, two.

Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb up (II) = Normal.
Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb down (II) = LAD.
Left thumb down (I) + Right thumb up (II) = RAD.

Mnemonic method:
Left leaves, right returns.

That's all!
Have a splendid week everyone < 3
-IkaN


Saturday, August 9, 2014

Why are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents avoided in myoardial infarction?

Good question!

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, with the exception of aspirin, are avoided in the setting of myocaridal infarction.

Thursday, August 7, 2014

Minimum number of antenatal visits recommended by WHO mnemonic

WHO recommends at least 4 visits:

1st visit around 16 weeks
2nd visit between 24-28 weeks
3rd visit at 32 weeks
4th visit at 36 weeks

Sunday, August 3, 2014

Why do we feel temperature with the back of our hand and why not the front?

The answer to this question goes back to Anatomy.

The front of our hand is innervated by the Median and Ulnar nerves which come from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus.
However, the back of the hand is innervated mostly by the Radial nerve which comes from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The posterior cord carries the maximum number of nerve roots, that is, C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.

The radial nerve provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand so I guess it's better to check temperature with a nerve with maximum representative nerve roots. I assume if one or two roots are not working properly, say C8 & T1, the other roots from the same nerve will compensate for it.

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Postpartum hemorrhage causes mnemonic

Remember the 4 T's for causes -
Tone [Atony]
Trauma [Episiotomy wound, laceration]
Tissue [Retained placenta, blood clots]
Thrombin [Blood coagulation disorders, acquired or congenital]

That's all!
-IkaN

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Normal arterial blood gas values and serum electrolytes mnemonic

Know the normal pH of blood 7.35 - 7.45.. That's all you need to remember I promise!

Take the numbers after the decimal, 35 - 45; and that's your pCO2.

Divide 45 by 2, approx 22; and that's your bicarbonate levels.

Multiply 45 by 2, that is, 90; and that's your pO2.

So in summary -
pH: 7.35 - 7.45
PCO2: 33 - 45 mm Hg
PO2: 75 - 105 mm Hg
Serum bicarbonate: 22 - 28 mEq/L

That's all!

Eid mubarak to everyone :)

-IkaN

Updated on 11th June, 2016: Illustration

Normal arterial blood gas value mnemonic
Related posts:
Wanna memorize more numbers?

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Kawasaki disease mnemonic

Kawasaki disease mnemonic - Much Kawaii strawberries and hearts. Cute in Japanese.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Engagement, synclitism and asynclitism

My first obstetrics video!
I talk on what is engagement & what do you mean by anterior and posterior asynclitism in this video!
Have fun learning :D


Sunday, July 20, 2014

An artery is always palapated against a bone

Did you know when you palpate the popliteal artery in the supine position, with the knee flexed, you palpate it against the proximal part of tibia but if you palpate the same in the prone position, with the knee flexed, you are palpating against the distal part of the femur?

Sunday, July 6, 2014

Intrinsic tyrosine kinase and receptor-associated tyrosine kinase mnemonic

Hello, how is everything going? ^__^
We'll be learning on how to remember some signaling pathways of endocrine hormones =D
Let's get started!

MAP kinase pathway mnemonic:
"I intrinsically try to map growth"
Intrinsic tyrosine kinase - Insulin & growth factors (IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF) - MAP kinase pathway!

JAK-STAT signaling pathway mnemonic:
JAK reminds me of a jack ass. I imagine a jack pig instead =P
Prolactin, Immunomodulators (e.g., cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN), Growth hormone.

If you can't remember the immunomodulators, just think STAT!
sTaT has two T's which should remind you of "Tins and Ters"
Tins - Erythropoietin, prolactin, thrombopoietin, leptin
Ters - Interferons, Interleukins

And another animal - rat.
This'll help you remember that it is a receptor-associated tyrosine kinase!

So remember 3 animals - Jackass, pig & rat. You should be good :)

That's all!
Hope you're doing well & see you in the next post =D
-IkaN

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Abdominal anatomy mnemonics related to hernia

It's pretty easy to remember the Contents Of the Inguinal canal!
Spermatic Cord in males, O looks like a round for round ligament in females and Ilioinguinal nerve.

Contents of the spermatic cord? Try VAN!
V!
Vas deferens
Pampiniform plexus of Veins
Remains of processus Vaginalis
Arteries!
Cremasteric artery
Artery to the vas
Testicular artery! *meow*
Nerves!
Genitofemoral nerve
Sympathetic plexus around artery to the vas

Hey everyone! I have surgery rotations going on. Was studying hernia today & hence the post :D

Did you guys know that the midpoint of the inguinal ligament & mid inguinal point are two completely different locations?

The midpoint of inguinal ligament is halfway between the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) and the pubic tubercle. It is the position of femoral nerve, used in femoral nerve blocks.
"Nervous ligament"
(Because the last word is ligament.)

The mid-inguinal point is halfway between ASIS and the pubic symphysis. It is the position of the femoral artery, used in palpation of femoral pulse.
Plain old "Point for pulse"
(The last word is point.)

The mid-inguinal point is more medial than the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. (Liga is lateral xP)

That's all for now!
More stuff coming soon :D

-IkaN

Monday, June 23, 2014

MBBS surgery instruments mnemonic

Surgery instruments mnemonic! Yaay!

Before you start reading, make sure you have (a little) general idea on what they look like & where they are used.. Because otherwise it'll sound completely bonkers! You make ask any doubts in the comments section below :)

Also you are free to contribute any crazy mnemonics you've made while learning these & we'll update this section accordingly! Have fun ^__^

Kocher's forceps mnemonic.
I call it Ko-chew.
You need teeth for chewing.
And that's how I remember that Kocher's looks like an artery forceps except for the apposing tooth in the tip.

Sunday, June 22, 2014

Antidotes and chelating agents mnemonic

Hey everyone! Long time, is it not?

We'll be learning about chelating agents today!

The antidote for copper poisoning is pencillamine.
How do I remember that?
"Copper pennies"
Penicillamine - Copper poisoning.

Dimercaprol is also known as British Anti Lewisite.
"BAL GAL" (It rhymes lol) or "British gal" is my mnemonic for remembering for which toxins' treatment it is used!
British Anti Lewisite - Gold, Arsenic, Lead.

Sometimes you find the answer in the word itself!
diMERcaprol - MERcury posioning.

Friday, June 13, 2014

What is extra ovular space?

IkaN: What does extraovular space mean in relationship to medical termination of pregnancy?

Pharmacology study tip - How to remember drugs names and their mechanism of action

Hey everyone!

There are certain drugs which are unique and that is why remembering mechanism of action or their pharmacological property becomes very difficult :/

I talk about how to remember them in this video! ^_^

http://youtu.be/vihwPYNaDAw

The drugs I talk about are - Finasteride, Flutamide, Baclofen, Dantrolene, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol. A mnemonic thingy which helps you not get confused =P

I hope you enjoy the video.
And if you do use this tip to make a merge words memory aid, don't forget to share it with us! :)

That's all!

-IkaN

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

Bacterial vaginosis: Difference between Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardenella vaginalis with mnemonic

I talk about the various features of Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardenella vaginalis.. Also added a mnemonic on metronidazole at the end! Hope it helps!


Monday, June 2, 2014

Lecithin–sphingomyelin ratio mnemonic

Hey everyone!

We measure the L:S ratio in the amniotic fluid to check for fetal lung maturity.

The concentration of lecithin and sphingomyelin is equal till 32–33 weeks gestation after which the lecithin concentration begins to increase significantly while sphingomyelin remains nearly the same.

An L:S ratio of 2 or more indicates fetal lung maturity and a relatively low risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome, and an L/S ratio of less than 1.5 is associated with a high risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome.

Not something you forget, but this is how it plays in my head - Phosphatidylcholine Peaks, Sphingomyelin remains the Same.

It also helps you remember that lecithin is made up of phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine.
(Sometimes, examiners may use basic biochemical compounds to test whether you know what they are made of.. That's when you show them what you are made of as well B)

That's all!

-IkaN

Saturday, May 3, 2014

Which cell secretes what? Male reproductive system mnemonics

LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce Testosterone.
Testosterone converts the Wolffian ducts into male accessory structures.
Mnemonic: There is a L in LH and Leydig.
If you flip around the letter L, it looks like a T.

FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to produce Sperm.
Mnemonic: There is a S in FSH, Sertoli, and Sperm.

Inhibin is secreted from the Sertoli cells and it inhibits FSH secretion.
Mnemonic: sertoli ends in I for Inhibin.

Sertoli cells secrete MIF that inhibit female paramesonephric duct development.
Mnemonic: sertoli ends in I for mullerian Inhibiting factor (MIF).

Related posts:
Which cell secretes what? A simplified ovarian cycle comic video
Which cell secretes what? Gastric mucosa histology mnemonics

Friday, May 2, 2014

Steps of mitosis mnemonic

Hey everyone!
We'll be learning about mitosis today!
Mitosis makes copies of cells.
It occurs in all somatic cells of the body (except sperm and ova)

Here is how to remember the various stages of cell division :)

Friday, April 25, 2014

Opioids and other analgesics mnemonic

Hey everyone!

I kept forgetting the unique feature of opioids and hence I felt a compulsive need to make a mnemonic. It was really hard making a mnemonic for it but I managed and I hope it helps!

Meperidine, Methadone, Nalbuphine and Pentazocine mnemonic
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