Sunday, November 30, 2014

Fistula in ano mnemonics

This post is all about fistula in ano!

Fournier's gangrene mnemonic

Hello!
Hope you're having a wonderful day!

I make lists of words so that I remember about them (Especially, for theory exams!)

Risk factors for carcinoma stomach mnemonic

Hey guys!
This is one of those "Make sure you write this" checklists I make.
Giving theory exams at the moment so I have that mindset xD

Anyway, the mnemonic is, "STOMACH"

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Hematemesis mnemonic

This mnemonic is for covering the unusual causes - DO NOT FORGET THE USUAL CAUSES LIKE ULCER AND VARICES.

Okay, now that the caps lock warning is read, let's get started :P

The mnemonic is, "UV HEMATEMESIS"

Paraumbilical hernia mnemonic

More of a checklist on what you need to know and write in exams!
The mnemonic is, "PARAUMBILICAL"

Pyloric stenosis mnemonic

Pyloric stenosis mnemonic
The mnemonic is, "PYLORIC"

Clinical vignette clues for multiple choice questions: Infected food and food poisoning.

Hello!
This is for all those who are studying bacteriology.
Certain foods can transmit very specific infections, and examiners like to go after it. Make sure you know this list!

Food.. Infected food.

Thank you

Thank you. To all my readers.

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Tuberculosis spine mnemonic (Potts disease)

I made this for my reference, so that I could make sure that I'd be able to write all the points, in case a LAQ was asked about it.

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Multiple sclerosis mnemonic

Things to know about multiple sclerosis -

When I made this, it was more like my check list on what to write in my exam. So I wouldn't exactly call it a mnemonic.

The words keep recurring in the mnemonic but I wrote them twice anyway (More revision, more recall, yaay!)

Multiple sclerosis
Upper motor neuron weakness
Uthoff's phenomenon
Lhermitte sign
Tingling numbness
Intention tremors
Posterior column features
Pulfrich phenomenon
Lhermitte sign
Exercise worsens symptoms

Scanning speech
Cerebellar signs
Continence problem
Lhermitte sign
Exercise worsens symptoms
Remitting features
Optic neuritis
Spasticity
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Scanning speech

That's all!
There is another simplified, "SINS" mnemonic as well.

-IkaN

Updated on 3rd December, 2014: Pulfrich phenomenon, suggested by Sujay Nigudkar

Friday, November 21, 2014

Nail disorders, diagnosis and abnormalities due to systemic diseases mnemonic

Hey girls and guys! We'll be learning about your girly and manly nails today.
Let's get started :)

Beau's line mnemonic:
"BEAUTIFUL"
BEAU's line
Transverse (linear)
Indented (depressed)
Forward (moves distally with growth of nail)
Undernourished (seen in malnourished patients)
Lines xD
Extra: It is seen in major illness or trauma. Coronary artery disease, hypotension and Raynauds phenomenon are a few causes.

Treatment of thyrotoxic crisis mnemonic

Hi. It's me again.

The mnemonic is, ABCD PQRS.

Antibiotics (To combat infection)
Benzodiazepines (For agitation)
Cooling (External cooling, no salicylates)
Carbimazole
Digoxin (For cardiac failure)

What is the function of thyroid peroxidase?

Oxidation - Losing the negativity around you (For new relationships with good aminoacids like tyrosine) =D

Organification - Because Iodine is just a molecule and can’t be used by organs alone. It needs to be "organified" :P

Coupling - Why stay alone when love is in the air? <3

Insulin analogues and preparations mnemonic

Short acting insulin mnemonic:
"NO LAG"
Novalog
Lispro (Humalog)
Aspart (Novalog)
Glusiline
Alternatively, "NO LAGgeRS" mnemonic includes:
Regular insulin
Semilente

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Types of pulse mnemonic

Hey there.
In this post, I'll be mumbling about the character or quality of various types of pulse seen in medical physical examination. Since this is a super long post, let's get started -

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) and club foot surgical treatment mnemonic

The mnemonic for club foot is, "ADMiT IT IS CTEV" and for surgical treatment of CTEV is "STRAIGHTED".

I talk about them in the video. 

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Ransons criteria for prognosis of acute pancreatitis mnemonic

I talk about Ransons prognostic criteria for gallstone and non gall stone pancreatitis in this video.

It focuses on how to remember the various numerical values and how to memorize the mnemonic itself lol.

The crossed paralyses: Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber & Raymond-Cestan brainstem syndromes mnemonic

Hello! The images below help you to remember these syndromes!

Millard-Gubler: Facial palsy and contralateral hemiparesis.

Millard-Gubler mnemonic

Monday, November 17, 2014

Adverse effects and contraindications of steroids mnemonic

G - Glaucoma (On typical use)
L - Limb muscle atrophy
U - Ulcer (Peptic ulcer)
C - Cushing syndrome
O - Osteoporosis
C - Cataract (On systemic use)
O - Osteoporosis (Avascular necrosis of head of femur)
R - c/I in Renal failure
T - c/I in Tuberculosis
I - Impairs healing
C - c/I in CHF
O- Oedema
I - Infections (Immunosuppressive)
D - Diabetes mellitus
S - Suppression of HPA axis

This mnemonic was submitted by Parth Mali. Tumaro abhar, Parth!

Cerebellar lesion clinical signs and symptoms mnemonic

Hello brainy people of the planet.
There's something lovely in your skull that helps keep you steady.
That's your cerebellum!
(We'll be talking about it today!)
Something lovely that helps you study?
That's your cerebrum!
And Medicowesome (Not too sure about the second bit xD)
Let's get to it!

The mnemonic for remembering the clinical signs and symptoms of Cerebellar disease is -
"IT'S Eyes Rebound like a Pendulum."

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Colles fracture mnemonic

Hello fellow medical students!
Colles fracture is associated with a "Dinner fork" deformity so I remember the other eating utensil, the "Spoon" to memorize everything about Colles.

Somatostatinoma mnemonic

S for somatostatin, S for 3 S's!

Sugar: Diabetes mellitus
Stones: Cholecystolithiasis
Steatorrhoea

That's all!
Sugar, spice and everything nice :)
-IkaN

Whipple's triad mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "wHIpple'S"
H for hypoglycaemia in fasting state.
I to remind you that it is seen in insulinomas.
S for sugar less than 45 mg % and for Symptoms relieved by Glucose.

Alternatively, you can remember "HIS Whip" if you know what I mean ;)

-IkaN

Saturday, November 15, 2014

Charcot's triad mnemonic

Hello. This is a mini post... For CHArcot's!
Jaundice
Pain
Fever
Seen in ascending cholangitis.
That's all!
-IkaN

Exception to Courvoisier's law mnemonic

Hello!

Courvoisier's law states that in a patient with jaundice, if there is a palpable gallbladder, it is not due to stones.

Obviously, exception to the rule will be conditions with a stone and palpable gallbladder!

The mnemonic is, "DHE exception".
D: Double impacted stone - one in CBD and one in cystic duct, with mucocele of gallbladder.
H: Large stone in Hartmann's pouch.
E: Empyema gallbladder.

The rule ain't useful if the patient doesn't have a gallbladder (absence, previous cholecystectomy) or if the gallbladder is intrahepatic.

That's all!
'DHEm' rebellious conditions breaking rules xD
-IkaN

Saint's triad mnemonic

Just don't forget the D was from the word "triaD"
Because, you might forget.

Types of sequestrum

Since there isn't a complete post on it online, I thought I'd write about it.

Clinical features of tuberculosis spine mnemonic

Here's the illustration!

Tuberculosis spine mnemonic

I made this for my reference, so that I could make sure that I'd be able to write all the points, in case a LAQ was asked about it.

Monday, November 10, 2014

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Ghon's complex in primary tuberculosis mnemonic

The mnemonic is, "GHONS"
GHoN for Giant Hilar lymph Nodes and lymphatics.
S for Subpleural parenchymal lesion.

Remember that the subpleural lesion is located in the lower part of the upper lobe, upper part of lower lobe or the middle lobe.
 
We are so used to learning that tuberculosis bacilli love living in the aerated upper part of the upper lobe that we might, by mistake, choose that option in a MCQ asking about the primary complex. Keep in mind that the infection in upper part of upper lobe is secondary reactivation TB, not primary.

Mnemonic for Ghons focus vs Ghons complex: 
Ghons compLex consists of Lymph nodes and Ghons focuS is just the Site of primary lesion in the lung. 

That's all! 

-IkaN

Filariasis mnemonic

Hi everybody!
These are random mnemonics I use to remember certain points about filariasis. Not sure if it'll help everybody. But uploading anyway!

"Filariasis fills the blood at night."
To remember that Microfilaria can be demonstrated in peripheral smear only at night.

"Microfilaria fills microvessels (capillaries) of the lung"
And cause tropical pulmonary eosinophilia!

Manifestations of filariasis
Remember 3 L's:
Lymphatic filariasis (caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi)
Loiasis (caused by Loa loa)
Light (light, sight, blindness - river blindness caused by Onchocerca volvulus)

So complicated names!

Diethylcarbamazine dose mnemonic:
DEC, D-E-six, 6 mg/kg for 21 days.

That's all!
-IkaN

Scabies treatment mnemonic

Hello.
The mnemonic for this itchy disease is the word, "SCABIES" itself. I divided it into two parts, the scabicides and the extra drugs used for pruritus, keratolysis, etc. The mnemonic is the same for both.

Scabicides: "SCaBIes"
S for Sulphur ointment

C for Crotamiton

B for Benzyl benzoate

b flipped upside down looks like a p, for permethrin

I for Ivermectin

I also looks like a L, for Lindane

Extras: "SCAbies"
S for Salicylic acid
S for Salicylates
C for Calamine lotion
C for Corticosteroids
A for Antihistamines

Notes:
Use 5% permethrin.
L looks like 1, so 1% Lindane.

Ivermectin (200 micro g/kg) single oral dose. Patients with crusted Scabies may require two or more doses of ivermectin.

Salicylic acid is a keratolytic; allows good penetration of scabicides.

Antihistamines, salicylates, and calamine lotion relieve itching during treatment, and topical glucocorticoids are useful for the pruritus that lingers after effective treatment.

That's all!
-IkaN

Short acting bronchodilators and long acting bronchodilators mnemonic

Happy Saturday everyone!
Was studying bronchial asthma and COPD today :)

Metro are trains & trains are long. So any drug with "metro" like word is long acting.
List of long acting bronchodilators:
Salmeterol
Formoterol or Eformoterol
Arformoterol

Testicular tumors surgical management mnemonic

Because scrotal approach for biopsies could disseminate testicular tumors, Chevassu suggested inguinal exploration and occlusion of the testicular vessels before biopsy of suspicious lesions.

I use a pun to remember this - "Chew vessels" to prevent seeding: Chevassou.

Other facts you must remember are - Seminomas are radiosensitive. They respond to chemotherapy with cisplatin as well.

And that teratomas have frequent lymph node involvement.

That's all!

-IkaN

Remembering the autonomic innervation of the bladder

"PISS" is my memory aid for remembering, Parasympathetics make you Pee from S2 - S4 segments. (Two S's in piss, so S2)

So the opposite, sympathetic L1 and L2, allow urine to collect and are inhibitory to the detrusor muscle.

That's all!
-IkaN

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Treatment of organophosphorus poisoning mnemonic

Hey!

I focus on how to remember the doses of the medications in this post.

Atropine. aTWOpine. 2 mg IV every 5-10 minutes till full atropinisation occurs.

Pralidoxime is also known as 2-PAM. Two. So 20 mg/kg in 20 minutes is the loading dose. Half that, 10 mg/kg/hr is the maintenance.

Remember to remove the patient from further exposure and wash the skin, give gastric lavage.
Also catheterize the patient before atropine is given (viva concept).

For symptoms of muscarinic poisoning, the common mnemonics are "DUMBBELLS" and "Cholinergics make you leaky"

That's all!
-IkaN

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Leptospirosis and Weil's disease mnemonic

Mnemonic for leptospirosis
"LEPTOSPIRO "
Lymphadenopathy
Encephalitis (And meningitis)
Pain in abdomen
Transmitted through animal urine
Occipital headache
Suffusion (conjunctival)
Pericorneal reddening, Photophobia
Iridocyclitis
Retro orbital pain, Rash
O looks like a heart for bradycardia

Tuberous sclerosis mnemonic

Tuberous sclerosis makes me think of tubers. Tuber is a plant structure that stores nutrients. Like sweet potatoes. And you know who it reminds me of? Mrs. Potato head from Toy Story!
Tuberous sclerosis mnemonic

Epidural anaesthesia mnemonic

Hello!

The mnemonic is, "EPIDURAL"

EP: Epidural catheter is Placed and anaesthetic is infused

I for Indwelling catheter for additional injections later

D for delay (A 15-30 min delay in onset is seen with epidural anaesthesia)

U for urinary retention, a complication of epidural anaesthesia (Another complication that you must remember is hypotension)

R for Repeated prolonged infusion that can be given with epidural anaesthesia

A for Analgesia (Epidural is used for labor analgesia, post op pain and cancer pain)

L for Lidocaine (The letter L has two lines, so two percent is the dose. Two also reminds me of Touhy needle, used for the anaesthesia)
Another commonly used anaesthetic is 0.5% Bupivacaine.

That's all!
*sings* I've become so numb
-IkaN

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Tocolytic agents mnemonic

Happy Tuesday everyone!

The mnemonic for tocolytic drugs is, "ABC MNO"
A: Atobican
B : Beta mimetics like ritodrine (return to dreams)
C : Calcium channel blockers like Nifedipine
C : Cyclooxygenase inhibitors like Indomethacin
M : Magnesium sulphate
N : NO donors like Glyceryl trinitrate
O : Oxytocin antagonists like Atociban

A and O repeat twice, I wrote them anyway because they give a good flow :)

That's all!

I was asked an MCQ on this concept in my prelims. They asked which of the following drugs is NOT a tocolytic and they put 4 drugs. So it's important to know ALL the tocolytic drugs.

-IkaN

Cullen's sign, Grey Turner's sign and Fox's sign seen in pancreatitis mnemonic

These signs are seen in acute pancreatitis. Having a mnemonic to remember them makes me feel complete!

Cullen's sign mnemonic:
If you complete the C, it looks like an O; umbilicus looks like an O. So pancreatic enzymes seeping through the falciform ligament causing discoloration around the umbilicus is the Cullen's sign.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Hormones that have similar structure and thus clinical effects

ACTH and MSH:
In Addison's disease, increase in ACTH causes hyperpigmentation because it is similar to MSH.

HCG and TSH:
Patients with choriocarcinoma can present with hyperthyroidism. It's because HCG is similar to TSH.

Pitocin and pitressin:
The drug oxytocin can cause water retention because it is similar to vasopressin.

These are all I can think of for now, lemme know if you guys know any other hormones that are so similar that they are able to cause similar effects in our body.

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