Ampulla of the fallopian tube is the most common site for fertilization.
|Congenital cytomegalovirus infection mnemonic|
We are going to learn about Meckel Gruber syndrome today!
It's an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by GRUBEP!
G: ambiguous Genitalia
R: Renal dysplasia
U: Ureteric hypoplasia
B: Bladder hypoplasia
There is nothing free except the grace of God.
Today's discussion is about Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase!
What are differences between CPS 1 and CPS 2?
CPS 1 works in the urea cycle.
CPS 2 in pyramidine synthesis.
CPS 1 is mitochondrial.
CPS 2 is cytosolic.
(Medicowesome mnemonic: Two is cys-two-lic)
The source of nitrogen for CPS 1 is ammonia.
For CPS 2, it is the amide group of glutamine.
N acetyl glutamate is activator for CPS 1.
ATP is activator for CPS 2.
Woah that's a lot of points I didn't know about!
Which essential amino acid interferes with the conversion of which another essential amino acid into niacin?
In shorghum or jowar, high leucine content inhibits conversion of tryptophan into niacin active form.
Any one knows the mechanism?
Because it inhibits quinolinate phopshoribosyl transferase.
Lack of estrogen causes a decrease in osteoprotegerin.
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), also known as osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), is a cytokine and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily.
Osteoprotegerin inhibits the differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts and also regulates the resorption of osteoclasts.
Mnemonic: Osteoprotegerin protects bone (By preventing macrophage differentiation into osteoclasts.)
Osteoprotegerin, a RANK homolog, works by binding to the RANK-ligand on Osteoblast/Stromal cells, thus blocking the RANK-RANK lingand interaction between Osteoblast/Stromal cells and Osteoclast precursors. This has the effect of inhibiting the differentiation of the Osteoclast Precursor into a mature Osteoclast.
Mnemonic: Osteoprotegerin ranks high in protecting bones.
So, estrogen kinda inhibits the osteoclasts which causes osteoporosis is the moral of the story?
Extra: Recombinant human osteoprotegerin specifically acts on bone, increasing bone mineral density and bone volume. Osteoprotegerin has been used experimentally to decrease bone resorption in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and in patients with lytic bone metastases.
Here are some beautifully presented points on Chagas disease written by Jolhf Mathai Koshy.
I didn't know about Romanas sign and Chagomas.
The MEGA mnemonic for cardiomegaly, splenomegaly, megaeosophagus and megacolon is brilliant.
Now, my brain is swollen up with sweet information! Thanks a lot, Jolhf!
Related post: Study group discussion on Chagas disease
Review - How do KW lesions, disease and syndrome differ from each other?
KW lesions refer to nodular glomerulosclerosis - the KW nodules
KW syndrome is nephrotic syndrome developing due to the lesions.
KW disease refers to any other manifestations occurring due to the lesions.
Any other manifestations like?
Manifestations of glomerulonephropathy. I guess hematuria, anasarca, uremia and others.
20 year old girl with a TB contact history comes to OPD with complaint of hemoptysis. Her TST is 20mm and her smear & culture is positive for mycobacterium TB.
Now some questions related to pulmonary TB!
What is brocks syndrome?
When the enlarging hilar lymph node causes collapse of bronchi, leading to bronchiectasis is called Brocks syndrome. Specially right middle lobe.
What do you exactly mean by post primary tuberculosis?
Post primary refers to TB that occurs few weeks after primary TB when the immunity has developed.
Chemoprophylaxis with which drug should be prescribed if a patient is gonna undergo some immunity wrecking thing like eg, gonna take long term steroids and their CXR shows evidence of previous TB?
So today, I forgot the types of breech.
And that's why, I made a illustration with eh mnemonic.
There are two types of full breech:
- Complete breech
- Frank breech
There are many types of incomplete breech:
Question: Definition of Koch's contact!
Answers, comments posted on the group -
1. Should have:
Sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis or sputum negative culture positive pulmonary TB
2. Person who is open case of Koch, person who just started AKT and person who completed AKT within 2 years.
It was my pediatrics viva question. I didn't know the answer back then! Thanks!
The contact should be a member of the household or be frequenting regularly.
The first identified case in a household is called as index case.