Saturday, October 31, 2015
When you are listening to a murmur, look for "SECRET Pi"
Effect of posture
Character (Tapping, heaving, thrill)
Radiation ( Axilla, neck, shoulder)
Effect of Respiration
This mnemonic was submitted by Adnan Arif =)
Thursday, October 29, 2015
Someone requested me to make a mnemonic on reliability and validity. Let me tell you in short what these terms mean!
What is validity and reliability?
Let's take the example of measuring blood glucose levels.
Suppose, we have developed a test to measure glucose levels and we measure it in healthy man. Normal standard we have set is, let's say, 80.
Reliability means test will give the same value each time. Let's say, we measured three times it gave reading of 120, 120, 120 that is reliable. Reliability is consistency. Also called precision.
But validity means the test will give a value which is close to our standard value, that is, 80 in this case. The three readings we get this time are 82, 85, 79. So this test is reliable, but not valid. Validity is also called accuracy. Validity is not affected by sample size.
This interplay of words messes up with one of my readers brain, so I'm sharing the mnemonic I made on it. I thought it was silly at first, to use a mnemonic to remember words, but I'm glad you all are as weird as me.
VACuum = Validity + ACcuracy
PReCiSe = Precision + Reliability + Consistency + Sample size dependent
Life is so good. I've never been so happy and calm. I'll tell you why soon, but for now, I just wanted you guys to know (:
Related post: Biostatistics mnemonic
Can someone explain how ethacrynic acid causes deafness?
Na+K+Cl+ transporter is also present in the ear. This transporter is the main site of action for ethacrynic acid. So when it acts the transporter Is inhibited leading to ionic imbalance. This results in hearing loss.
It is the diuretic which is most dangerous when it comes to causing sensorineural deafness.
Even then it's use indicated in one special condition. Guess which condition?
If a patient has reaction to sulpha drugs.. The DOC becomes ethacrynic acid.
Recent studies revealed that the ototoxic effect of EA is actually involved in selectively blocking the lateral spiral artery in the cochlea and suppressing the blood flow supply to the cochlear lateral wall. The epithelial ischemia and anoxia in stria vascularis resulted in a significant depression of endolymphatic potential which was equivalent to cutting off the power supply of the cochlea . During the ischemic damage to the epithelium and capillaries on the cochlear lateral wall, the vascular permeability and membranous permeability in stria vascularis were also affected so that the ototoxic drug can penetrate through the broken blood-cochlea barrier to enter the cochlea.the ototoxic drug can reach the cochlear hair cells either through the cuticular plate facing the endolymph or through the under parts of the hair cells in the cortilymph.
In short bro, hair cell damage directly by EA.
Oooh. So it first causes ischemia and then enters the hair cells. But at the end the outer hair cells are getting damaged. Nice!
Monday, October 26, 2015
Firstly, take a moment to congratulate yourself. You've made it to medical school! New subjects is going to be so much fun!
"I feel left behind. I'm not able to answer. What is taught in lecture is very minimalistic compared to text book."
Sunday, October 25, 2015
Tuesday, October 20, 2015
Monday, October 19, 2015
In otosclerosis, why carharts notch at 2000 Hz in PTA?
Carhart attributed this phenomenon to "mechanical factors associated with stapedial fixation."
But why the greatest dip at 2 kHz?
The ossicular chain has two basic modes of vibration. The first mode, with a peak around 1200 Hz, is the primary mode for AC stimulation. This mode is associated with a "hinging" motion of the ossicles caused by AC stimulation of the tympanic membrane at the umbo. The second mode, with a peak around 1700 Hz, is described as a "pivoting" motion of the malleus/incus, with an axis of rotation somewhat orthogonal to the axis of rotation associated with the "hinging" motion. The second mode is less robust than the primary mode for AC stimulation, but it is the dominant mode when excited by BC stimulation. A decreased mobility of the ossicular chain at 1700 Hz due to otosclerosis also affects the surrounding frequencies, but is seen most prominently as a BC loss at 2000 Hz in audiometric testing.
Friday, October 16, 2015
Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors of the GI tract. They can make high levels of neuropeptides and amines, like serotonin, which can cause brief episodes of flushing, diarrhea, cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, heart disease, and in rare cases, pellagra. (Typical carcinoid syndrome)
Atypical carcinoids have a normal plasma serotonin level. They are characterized by extended episodes of deep purple flushing, headache, shortness of breath, and in rare cases, lacrimation (tears).
Wednesday, October 14, 2015
I feel that email is the best option.
You can follow by any RSS feed here.
As for social media, I regularly update Facebook and Twitter.
For those of you who use Whatsapp, the Broadcast list is a wonderful idea.
I add contacts to my broadcast list and send links to blog posts (new and old) on a daily basis.
Broadcast list: http://medicowesome.blogspot.in/2015/09/medicowesome-broadcast-list.html
Tuesday, October 13, 2015
Bradykinesia is due to deficiency of dopamine.
Rigidity is due to uncompensated increase in acetylcholine.
Why levodopa is always given in combination with carbidopa and entacapone?
Carbidopa is given to protect levodopa against dopa decarboxylase enzyme which causes its peripheral breakdown. Peripheral conversion of dopamine is harmful.. Can cause cardiac arrhythmias and postural hypotension.
Entacapone is given to block COMT.
Difference between entcapone and talcapone?
You need cytokines to tell the marrow to synthesis platelets. They are synthesized chiefly by liver.
It is also been associated with the concept of hypersplenism leading to sequestration of thrombocytes in the enlarged spleen.
Monday, October 12, 2015
Saturday, October 10, 2015
The captain of Titanic was not a pro in sailing because he sank the ship xD
Or because he listened to Bruce, "The press knows the size of Titanic, now I want them to marvel at her speed, too. We must give them something new to print. This maiden voyage of Titanic must make headlines!"
Haste is waste, Bruce. Lol.
So now you know what I am talking about, here's the mnemonic:
"Captain who Listens and acts hastily is not a pro."
He likes to call the scaphoid fracture as the Spiderman fracture. Why?
Because it's caused by supination and dorsiflexion of wrist.
(Just like how spidey throws his web!)
|Spiderman - Supinating and dorsiflexing the wrist xD|
I remember about Scrat the squirrel form Ice Age, always screwing around for an acorn.
Tuesday, October 6, 2015
Sunday, October 4, 2015
A + B
Anti A + Anti B