Friday, November 21, 2014

Nail disorders, diagnosis and abnormalities due to systemic diseases mnemonic

Hey girls and guys! We'll be learning about your girly and manly nails today.
Let's get started :)

Beau's line mnemonic:
"BEAUTIFUL"
BEAU's line
Transverse (linear)
Indented (depressed)
Forward (moves distally with growth of nail)
Undernourished (seen in malnourished patients)
Lines xD
Extra: It is seen in major illness or trauma. Coronary artery disease, hypotension and Raynauds phenomenon are a few causes.

Lindsay half and half nails mnemonic:
"LINDSAy"
Liver (Seen in liver disease)
Increased pigment deposition
Nephron (Seen in renal disease)
Distal portion dark (Brown, pink)
Swollen
Anemia
(proximal portion is white due to edema and anaemia)
You are awesome. (Filler :D )

Terry's white nails mnemonic:
"WHITe"
W for white (Obviously!)
Hepatic disease
Heart failure
Insulin (Reminds me of diabetes)
Terry's nails
Thyroid (Seen in hyperthyroidism)
Eeeee (Say eeee and smile please!)

Yellow nails mnemonic:
"YELLOw"
Yellow coloured
Effusion
Lung disorders (bronchiectasis) Lymphedema
Obliteration of lunula
Wow. You're nail expert.

Koilonychia mnemonic:
"KOI"
Koilonychia
cOncave
Iron deficiency

Mee's lines mnemonic:
"Mees"
Metal poisoning (Arsenic, thallium)
Malaria
Monoxide poisoning
E has 3 transverse lines (Mee's lines are transverse)
Set straight (Not depressed)

Muehrcke's Lines (Leukonychia striata) mnemonic:
"MUEHRCke'S"
Mees like but
Unmoving
E has 3 transverse lines (Muehrcke's lines are transverse, like Mee's; but they do not grow)
Renal (Seen in nephrotic syndrome)
Hypoalbunemia
Chemotherapy
Kiss yourself, you've learnt a lot today!
Set straight (Not depressed)
Pitting nails, Psoriasis.
Splinter hemorrhage, Subacute bacterial endocarditis.
Telangiestasia, twisted vessels.

And for the sake of completion, the famous causes of clubbing mnemonic:
"CLUBBING"
Cyanotic heart disease
Lung abscess
Ulcerative colitis
Bronchiectasis
Bronchogenic carcinoma
Interstitial lung disease
Not in COPD
Never say COPD
Gastrointestinal (Cirrhosis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease)

This is my clubbing mnemonic:
"CLUBBINGS"
Calculate digit ratio
Lovibond angle is obliterated
U of nail becomes like a drum stick
Because of
Bulbous enlargement of Distal segment of digit and
Increase in soft tissue mass
Nail bed fluctuation
Growth factors (PDGF maybe a cause)
Schamroth's sign is present

That's all!  *phew*
Lemme know if this helped!
-IkaN

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