Showing posts with label Gastroenterology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Gastroenterology. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 15, 2022

Hepatitic LFT enzymes and Cholestatic LFT enzymes illustration

ALT_ Alanine aminotransferase
AST_ Aspartate aminotransferase 
ALP_ Alkaline phosphatase 
GGT_ Gamma glutamyl transferase
Shreya HA

Friday, June 25, 2021

Celiac Disease (Spectrum of Manifestations)

 Hello friends! I hope all of you are doing well. Today I wanted to share with you the many faces of Celiac Disease. Although considered as the disease which chiefly causes gastrointestinal symptoms, the entire spectrum of possible manifestations it can cause is quite broad.

Some significant associations are as follows:

1.) GI- Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), Microscopic colitis

2.) Liver- NASH

3.) Spleen- Functional Asplenia (SLE & Amyloidosis being other notable causes)

4.) CNS- Seizures with posterior cerebral calcification, Neuro-psychiatric symptoms, Ataxia

5.) Hematology- Evans syndrome

6.) Pulmonary- Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage

Here is the full spectrum. Hope you like it.

-Kirtan Patolia

Saturday, May 8, 2021

Friday, January 29, 2021

Auto-brewery Syndrome

 I heard about auto-brewery syndrome today!

It is a condition in which ethanol is produced through endogenous fermentation by fungi or bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Sunday, January 3, 2021

Mnemonic for Caustic Esophageal injury

Hi everyone! 

Here is a short mnemonic! 

ACidic Substance = Coagulation Necrosis ( Protein denaturation) - 

results in Eschar - prevents further acid penetration & thereby severe injury.

ALakaline Substance = Liquefactive Necrosis (Cell membrane dissolution) - deeper penetration results in more severe injuries. 

1st step = Serial CXR & abdominal x-ray to identify perforation

If no perforation or respiratory distress then Upper GI endoscopy within 24 hours to assess severity for esophageal damage. 

Thank you! 

Thursday, December 24, 2020

The three O's of GI bleeding : Overt, obscure, and occult

GI bleeding can be classified into three O's: Overt, obscure, and occult! Can you define these terms?

If not, I'll help you out

Saturday, November 7, 2020

It's a Carny Problem


Carney's Syndrome - multiple benign tumors, mainly of heart and skin

Carney Stratakis Syndrome - Pediatric GIST (Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor)

Monday, May 4, 2020

Bugs causing bloody diarrhoea - mnemonic


Bugs that cause bloody diarrhoea : HE Is ClASSY

enteroHEmorragic E coli
enteroInvasive E coli

EntAmoeba histolytica
Salmonella (non-typh)
Y enterocolitica

Hope that helps
- Jaskunwar Singh

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Acute Liver Failure in a nutshell.

Acute Liver Failure is defined as the acute onset of severe liver injury with encephalopathy and ↓ synthetic function (INR ≥ 1.5 ) in a patient without  cirrhosis or underlying known liver disease.

Acute Liver Failure.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Congestive hepatopathy

Short post!

In congestive heart failure, the elevated pressure is transmitted from the right heart chambers (right ventricle and atrium) to the hepatic veins and sinusoids leading to intrahepatic edema, decreased perfusion and oxygen diffusion as well as hemorrhagic injury and modification on the hepatocyte architecture and atrophy with associated collagen deposition, and fibrosis to the hepatic veins and sinusoids.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Hepatorenal Syndrome: An Overview

Hello good folks! Let's discuss HepatoRenal Syndrome (HRS) in brief.

Cirrhosis + Ascites + Renal Failure = HRS, after excluding other causes of kidney damage.

How common is HRS?
1 in 10 patients of advanced cirrhosis or acute liver failure develop HRS.

How does HRS happen?
Abnormal haemodynamics, that's how. Pathogen, faulty immune system and mesenteric angiogenesis result in splanchnic and systemic vasodilation but renal vasoconstriction. Other factors maybe contributory.

Types and management
Type 1: Rapidly progressive, median survival about 2 weeks. Haemodialysis may be required.

Type 2: Slowly progressive, median survival about 6 months. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) maybe required.

Liver and/or kidney transplant maybe considered for both types.

Thanks for reading.
Ashish Singh.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Fact of the day - BUC in UGI bleed


Blood urea levels are positively associated with upper GI bleed. But here's the fact: