Contents page

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Types of Sphenoid Sinues
Maxillary Artery
Blood Supply of the Face & Neck in a Nutshell!
Facebook: ENT X-rays part - 1

Dentistry posts
Types of Dentin
Pulp Stones
Interglobular Dentin
Enamel Rods
Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath- HERS
Transitory Sutures

Tongue, pharynx, larynx
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Lymphatic drainage of the tongue
Innervation of the tongue, palate, pharynx & larynx with mnemonic


Anatomy of the larynx: Cartilages
Mnemonic for the laryngeal muscles and their actions
Laryngomalacia vs tracheomalacia mnemonic
Mnemonico diagnostico : Direct laryngoscopy in Laryngomalacia
Question on larynx

Waldeyer's Ring
Rhinolalia Aperta
Sinus of Morgagni- Contents
Diagnostic features in the  X-ray and probable pathology in the Sinus
Zenker's Diverticulum

PATCHED: When the tonsils shows a membrane
Tonsillar Bed mnemonic

Tracheostomy: urgency vs emergency

Rhinosporidium seeberi
ENT Manifestations of HIV Infection

Nose related
Memorizing how to draw the nasal septum
CSF rhinorrhea and meningitis treatment
Deviated Nasal Septum clinical features
Deviated Nasal Septum
The Basics : Lateral wall of Nasal cavity
Mikulciz Disease- Rhinoscleroma
Mnemonic- Causes of saddle nose
Nasal Encephalocele vs Nasal Glioma
Pearls on polyps
Question: Rhinosporidiosis.
Ear related
The Basics : Middle Ear
Battle's sign mnemonic
How to draw the tympanic membrane
Types of tympanic membrane perforation
Vestibular nerve, pathway and mnemonic for the receptors
Vestibular Apparatus Mnemonic
Cochlear nerve, pathway and mnemonic
Auditory Transduction simplified
Question: Caloric test
Easy way to memorise Organ of Corti

Glands in the head, neck and face
Parotid tumors mnemonic
Secretomotor pathway to submandibular gland mnemonic

ENT instruments
(More than 10 instruments here.)
Image Based MCQ on ENT instruments

- Upper extremity
Upper limb joints types mnemonic
Brachial plexus mnemonic
Radial nerve
Median nerve
Ulnar nerve
Response of Vagus to Systemic Injury.
Fact of the day : Neurovascular knockout
13th and 14th Cranial Nerves.
Branches of subclavian artery mnemonic
Injury to spinal accessory nerve
Intrinsic muscles of the hand mnemonic
How to remember the function of anconeus muscle (Screwing movement at elbow joint)
Hand of Benediction and clawing mnemonic
Supination and Pronation of  Forearm
Why do we feel temperature with the back of our hand and why not the front?
Klumpkes paralysis notes
Anastomosis around the Scapula
Tinel's Test
Fact of the day: Shoulder dislocation

- Lower extremity
Inguinal Lymph nodes
Ischioanal Fossa (Fun Mnemonic Diagram)
Lasegue's Test
Did you know soleus is known as the second heart?
Peroneal nerve branches mnemonic
Gluteus maximus is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve
Sciatic nerve distribution and Sciatica
An artery is always palapated against a bone
Tarsal Bones Mnemonic
Femoral Nerve Mnemonic
Femoral triangle and femoral sheath contents mnemonic

- Abdomen
Submissions: Branches of the abdominal aorta flow chart
Left testicular vein drains into (Mnemonic)
Peritoneal ligaments of liver
Anterior Abdominal Wall : Mnemonics
Abdominal Aorta Mnemonic

- Embryology
Steps of mitosis mnemonic
Two interesting facts related to embryology.
How to remember gene for differentiation of gonads
Gastroschisis vs Omphalocele mnemonic
♥ Aortic arch derivatives mnemonic images
Nervous system origins mnemonic
Embryological origin of brain mnemonics
Cleft lip and palate mnemonics
Neural crest (Clinical aspect)

Neural Crest Cells : Mnemonic

Conjunctiva, sclera and uvea related
Step 2 CK: Conjunctivitis in newborn
Symptoms of conjunctival disorders mnemonic
Pterygium is more common on the nasal side: Why?
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus notes
Membranous and pseudomembranous conjunctivitis notes
Conjunctival Xerosis
Ocular HIV
Ocular toxoplasmosis and HIV
Enucleation, Evisceration & Exenteration
Causes of chemosis mnemonic

Cornea related
Symptoms of corneal disorders mnemonic
ICE syndrome mnemonic
Layers of the cornea mnemonic
Mnemonic: Organisms penetrating an intact Cornea
Sequels of corneal ulcer perforation
Complications of corneal ulcer
DD of neonatal cloudy cornea

Glaucoma related
♥ Progression of visual field defects in Glaucoma mnemonic
Vogt's triad in congestive glaucoma mnemonic
Inverse glaucoma

Pharmacology related to glaucoma
Side effects of anti-glaucoma drugs mnemonic
Latanoprost and Pilocarpine never go together

Innervation of the eye
Hering's law of equal innervation
Ptosis in Horner's syndrome vs oculomotor nerve palsy
Horner Syndrome
Question: Diabetic 3rd nerve palsy
Question: Squint manifestations
Movements of eye muscles.

Paramedian pontine reticular formation and MLF
Ocular Therapeutics (DYES)
Image Based MCQ on Ophthalmology
Refractive indices of the eye mnemonic
Prolate and Oblate ellipse mnemonic
Layers of retina
Blood retinal Barrier
Sequence of appearance of papilledema
Graves ophthalmoplegia
Amaurosis fugax mnemonics
Tropia vs Phoria
Difference between Iris repositor and IOL dialer
Unique iris behavior in bleeding 
Classification of closed globe injuries
Occupation and Ophthalmology : Clinical Pearl
Steroids and the Eye : Utility Review
Ectopia lentis mnemonic
Myopia and power mnemonic
Myopia and Hypermetropia mnemonic
Myopic Shift : Explanation
Blurred Vision differentials
Triad of Retinitis pigmentosa mnemonic
Oculocardiac Reflex
Evaluation of Pseudophakia
Doyne's macular degeneration
Lowe syndrome mnemonic
How is visual contrast achieved?
Lesions of visual pathway

Pills of knowledge in Ophthalm- Moxifloxacin
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalm- Posterior staphyloma
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalmology- Squint and refractive errors
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalm- Anterior ciliary artery
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalmology-Pupil and the third nerve palsy
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalm- squint and frontal eye field
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalm- Retinal haemorrhages
Pills of knowledge in Ophthalm- Nodal cataract

MIL: Polar cataract
MIL: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Right Eye
MIL: Cystic degeneration of pterygium

Pursuing ophthalmology in India

Biochemistry – How to study?
Studying Biochemistry

Glucose, glycogen metabolism
Intermediates in Gluconeogenesis mnemonic
♥ Glycogen storage diseases mnemonic
Glycogen storage diseases mnemonic by A. P. Burkholderia
Galactose and fructose metabolism mnemonics
Carbohydrate Loading
Dextrorotary or levorotatory and D or L forms
GLUT mnemonic
Pyruvate Carboxylase Vs Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (a mnemonic)

Protein metabolism
Difference between heterocyclic aminoacids and aromatic aminoacids
Amino acids with electrically charged side chains mnemonic
LDL cholesterol - The bad turns good
Metabolism of HDL notes
Bile acid sequestrants mnemonic
Lipid lowering agents mnemonic
Hypolipidemic drugs classification mnemonic

Niemann-Pick disease mnemonic
Tay-Sachs disease notes and mnemonic
Tay Sachs Disease

Mnemonics on nutrition
Submissions: Selenium deficiency mnemonic
Study group discussion: A case of vitamin deficiency
Hypervitaminosis A mnemonic
♥ Vitamin C and Scurvy mnemonic
Vitamin B related
Vitamin B3 and pellagra mnemonics
♥ Biotin (vitamin B7) mnemonic
Biotin deficiency mnemonic
Mnemonic for Vit B complex
Enzymes requiring thiamine mnemonic
Thiamine and Beri-Beri: A Summary
Vitamin D
Vitamin D resistant rickets mnemonic
Vitamin D in Type - 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Facts and Fallacies: Vitamin D link to cancer
Mnemonico diagnostico : Vitamin D deficient Rickets
More than what you know about vitamins!

Genetics and molecular biochemistry
Initiation factors in eukaryotic translation mnemonic
Klein Waardenburg syndrome
Crispy C.R.I.S.P.R.!
Inheritance: Funny illustration
Evolution, transposons and retrotransposons
How to remember that the gene product of RAS is GTPase
♥ DNA replication mnemonics
Features of DNA replication: Semiconservative replication
Features of DNA replication: Unidirectionality and bidirectionality
dUMP to dTMP reaction
♥ Southern, Northern, and Western blot mnemonic
Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides mnemonic
Mnemonic for base pairing of nucleotides
Amino acids necessary for purine synthesis mnemonic
Nucleoside vs Nucleotide
Difference between ribose and deoxyribose sugar menmonic
Trinucleotide repeats mnemonics
Transcription : A mnemonic to remember the RNA Polymerases

On enzymes and reactions
Classification of enzymes mnemonic
Entropy, Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy – The monsters of bioenergetics.
How to remember the sign and direction of Gibbs free energy change
♥ Competitive and non competitive inhibitors simplified
Competitive vs Non-Competitive Inhibitors mnemonic

Synthase vs. Synthetase
Dehydrogenase vs. Dehydratase
Oxidase vs. Oxygenase
Enzymes and the Type of Reactions they Catalyze ( Part 1 : OXIDOREDUCTASES)
Enzymes and the Type of Reactions they Catalyze ( Part 2 : TRANSFERASES)
Enzymes and the Type of Reactions they Catalyze ( Part 3 : HYDROLASES)
Enzymes and the Type of Reactions they Catalyze ( Part 4 : LYASES)
Enzymes and the Type of Reactions they Catalyze ( Part 5 : ISOMERASES)

Enzymes and the Type of Reactions they Catalyze ( Part 6 : LIGASES)

Other posts related to biochemistry
Inhibitors of electron transport chain mnemonic

Microbiology and infectious diseases

♥ Cell wall of gram positive and gram negative bacteria mnemonic
Cell wall of gram positive and gram negative bacteria notes
How to differentiate between Gram positive cocci

♥ Difference between Blood Agar and Chocolate Agar
Image Based MCQ on Blood Agar

Difference between viral and bacterial infection
Difference between secondary and superinfection
Bacterial exotoxins that work via overactivating Adenylate Cyclase, a mnemonic

Biochemical tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae mnemonic
Lancefield group for classification of Streptococci mnemonic
Scarlet fever notes and mnemonic
Treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: Important points for USMLE
Cutaneous manifestations of Streptococcus

♥ Neisseria mnemonic
Microbiology question
Panton-Valentine leukocidin
Alpha and Beta hemolytic organisms mnemonic
Antibiotic sensitivity tests for gram positive cocci mnemonic

Introduction to micro-organism series
Micro-organism series: Staphylococcus aureus
Dermatology: Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome vs Bullous Impetigo
Micro-organism series -Salmonella

H. influenzae type b capsule mnemonic

Mycobacterial biochemical reactions mnemonic
Pigment producing mycobacteria mnemonic

Treatment of erythema migrans in early Lymes disease
Leptospirosis and Weil's disease mnemonic
Condyloma acuminata vs condyloma lata mnemonic
Treponemal and nontreponemal tests for syphilis (notes + mnemonic)

Bartonella henselae and Pasteurella multocida infection mnemonic

Basics of Coagulase test
Catalase positive organisms mnemonic
Chronic granulomatous disease - Catalase positive organisms mnemonic
Chronic granulomatous disease mnemonic
Non lactose fermenters mnemonic

Brucellosis and it's reservoirs mnemonic

House MD - Neurocysticerosis

Tetanus are Anaerobic! Can Oxygen infusion into the wound, heal tetanus?
3 month old with hypotonia
Clinical vignette clues for multiple choice questions: Infected food.
♥ About B cereus food poisoning and mnemonic

Of Iron, bacteria, hemochromatosis and plague

What causes thrombocytopenia in malaria?
Plasmodium species that have a dormant liver form (hypnozoites) mnemonic
Intrinsic and extrinsic incubation period
Pharmacology related to malaria
Malaria prophylaxis and treatment mnemonic

Differentials of nodular lymphangitis
Transmission of toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasma gondii mnemonic

Vector borne diseases mnemonic
Tick borne disease mnemonic

Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium mnemonic
East African Sleeping Sickness and West African Sleeping Sickness mnemonic
Trypanosma mnemonic

♥ Bile stained and non bile stained eggs mnemonic
Enterobius vermicularis notes & mnemonics
Strongyloides stercaralis notes and mnemonics

Submissions: Chagas disease notes
Layers of hydatid cyst mnemonic and diagram
Hydatid cyst mnemonic
Filariasis mnemonic
Rickettsia mnemonic

Mycology and fungi
Dermatophytes mnemonic
MCQ Pointers - Pityriasis Versicolor.
Microbiology Candida
Histoplasmosis mnemonic

Pharmacology related to fungi
Antifungal drugs (with mechanism of action) mnemonic
Scabies treatment mnemonic
Echinocandins: Mechanism of action, side effects and orgranisms affected (mnemonic)


Virus mnemonic
DNA viruses mnemonic
Viral inclusion bodies mnemonic
Can specialized transducing phages replicate again via a lytic cycle?
Bacteriophages coding for toxins video
Mnemonic on viral structures

Structure and properties of poxviruses mnemonic
Lesions of small pox and chicken pox mnemonic
Question: Chicken pox

Naked DNA viruses mnemonic
Naked RNA viruses mnemonic

♥ Heterophile antibody test, CMV and EBV mnemonic 
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

HIV Fact sheet
AIDS - Symptomatic phase association with CD4 count
HIV epidemiology
Opportunistic infections in AIDS
PCR tests for HIV

New treatment regimen for Hepatitis C
Extra hepatic complications of hepatitis C mnemonic
Hepatitis B serum markers mnemonic
Serological And Viral Markers Of Hepatitis B Infection Made Easy
Prophylaxis of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D
Fulminant liver failure and Hepatitis E
Histology / Pathology: Viral hepatitis - A histologic clue to the causative virus
Torres bodies mnemonic
Fact of the day: Lymphocytosis in pertussis
How I remember that Norwalk virus is a Calicivirus that causes gastroenteritis
Olympics 2016 and the Zika
Zika -The next Ebola?

Pharmacology related to antivirals
Antiretroviral drugs mnemonic
Innate Cellular Anti-retroviral Mechanisms
Protease inhibitors: Indinavir and Ritonavir mnemonic
Fusion inhibitors

COVID-19 related posts

All about cells in the immune system
Cells of the immune system
Basophils simplified
Eosinophils simplified
Dendritic cells simplified
Mast cell simplified
Monocytes & macrophages simplified
Neutrophils simplified
Eosinophilia mnemonic
Natural killer cells simplified
Phagocytes simplified
Policemen of our body
Granular contents of neutrophils mnemonic
Phagocytes, Monocytes, Macrophages, Histiocytes?! What's the difference between them?

The chronicles of the T cell and B cell
Morphology of lymphocytes
Thymus dependent activation of B lymphocytes simplified
About B cells and T cells
Where do B cells and T cells reside in the lymph nodes and spleen?
Maturation of a T cell
Education of T lymphocytes
Function of B lymphocyte simplified
Function of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte simplified
Types of Helper T cells
Why is B cell called a B cell?
Being a B cell
An Autobiography of a T Helper cell about HIV vaccine

Immortal cells
Ingenious Immune System
HLA subtype associated diseases mnemonics
HLA, MHC & CD T cell mnemonic
Which cells have which MHC class?
Antigen presenting cells display processed antigens to T cells through which MHC molecule?

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency mnemonic
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
Chediak Higashi syndrome.

Hematopoietic stem cell differentiation mnemonic
Chemokines (chemoattractants) mnemonic
Interleukin 2 mnemonic
Which interleukins are secreted by T cells? (Mnemonic)
Interleukin 1 mnemonic

How do anti-TNF biologics work?
Immunomodulators mnemonic
Immune system has 2 arms - Innate and Adaptive
Ciliated epithelial cells - A physical barrier of the immune system
Immunology question
IRIS (Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome)

Immunowesome book

Pathology, physiology and medicine

Molecular and cellular pathology
Mechanism of Invasion of Tumor cells
Apoptosis: Proapoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules mnemonic
Apoptosis - Quick review
Apoptosis genes mnemonic
Basics of Fat necrosis.
♥ Hypertrophy- is it just all about size?
Hyperplasia - Physiologic or Pathologic?
Gross specimen description
Non caseating granulomas mnemonic
Gap Junctions and Connexin Mutation
Desmosomes and its disorders
Cell mnemonics
Hypoxia and radiotherapy
Equilibrium potential value of an ion and how to apply it to action potential ?
Na-K ATPase and Donnan  effect
Donnan Effect
Quick Facts - Fried Egg Appearance!

Cardiac pathophysiology (Cardiology)

Right IJV for assessment of right heart hemodynamics
ABC vs CAB for CPR

Cardiac anatomy
Coronary circulation: Fun fact about blood flow to the myocardium

Myocardial ischemia / infarction MI related
Next best step in management in ST depression and ST elevation in acute coronary syndromes
Complications of Myocardial Infarction Mnemonic
Step 2 CK: Interventions that lower mortality in STEMI and ACS
Pathophysiology and symptoms of STEMI
Prinzmetals angina
Study group discussion: Widow makers artery
Post MI complications mnemonic
Ischaemic Preconditioning
Diagnostic enzymes in myocardial infarction
Study Group Discussion: Salisbury Phenomenon
ACCF/AHA versus ESC guidelines: Pharmacologic therapies for management of HFrEF
Atrial fibrillation (part 1) by Dr. Huzefa Bhopalwala
CHA2DS2-VASc Risk Score
Authors' diary: CHADSVasc High
♥ Supraventricular tachycardia mnemonic
The algorithm to Management of Ventricular Tachycardia -- USMLE Step 2 CK
Step 2 CK: Algorithm for management of Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter
Ventricular arrhythmia notes
Wolff-Parkinson's White syndrome
Pharmacology related to arrhythmias
Atrial fibrillation in WPW syndrome
Why does Digoxin toxicity result in increased automaticity?
How to remember digoxin is renally excreted
Adverse reactions of Digitalis mnemonic
Top 10 series: Digoxin
♥ Antiarrhythmic drug classes mnemonic
Inactivated sodium channels and Lidocaine (Lignocaine)
Top 10 series: Amiodarone
Amiodarone- induced thyroid dysfunctions
Amiodarone and thyroid dysfunction

Valvular lesions and congenital heart diseases
♥ A neonate with cyanotic heart disease
Transposition of Great Arteries!
Study group discussion: PGE and congenital heart diseases
Why does cyanotic heart disease predispose to brain abscess?
Submissions: Murmur characteristics mnemonic
How to remember HOCM is an Autosomal Dominant disease
'Named Murmurs' : Eponyms and Cardiac Auscultation
♥ Heart murmurs mnemonic
♥ Signs seen in Aortic regurgitation mnemonic
Hill’s criteria in Aortic Regurgitation
Heyde's syndrome mnemonic
Mitral Regurgitation Begets Mitral Regurgitation: Explanation
Aortic stenosis murmur explained
Ductus Arteriosus: Review of Key Points
Tetralogy of fallot mnemonic

Cardiac physiology
Tugging on heart strings
Second Heart sounds : Quick review
Cushing's Reflex in Meningitis: Mnemonic
Baroreceptors mnemonic
Ionotrophy, chronotrophy, dromotrophy, lusirophy and bathmotrophy
Types of pulse mnemonic
Causes of Radio Radial and Radio femoral delay
♥ Mean systemic filling pressure
♥ Cardiac Output and Venous Return curve mnemonic
Why does heart stop in diastole when plasma potassium level rises?
♥ Why are there differences in cardiac action potential in different parts of the heart?
Cardiac fast fibers and slow fibers - Why does a less negative membrane potential convert a normally fast fiber into a slow fiber?
Behind the scenes: Subendocardial fibres lack phase 1

Blood pressure, hypertension and hypotension
Fact of the day : Blood pressure should be measured in both arms
Investigations in renovascular hypertension
♥ What are the factors affecting diastolic blood pressure?
Nervous regulation of blood pressure
Renal Causes of Hypertension : A Summary
Lifestyle modifications for managing hypertension

Hypertension related pharmacology
Classification of antihypertensives
Step 2 CK: Treatment of hypertensive emergencies
ACE inhibitors that are not prodrugs mnemonic and dysgeusia
ACE inhibitors, prostaglandins and the renin angiotensin system
ACE Inhibitors in Diabetic Nephropathy 
ACE Inhibitor (Captopril) Adverse effects mnemonic
Effects of Angiotensin-II on GFR
Study group discussion: Side effects of thiazides
Why does thiazide, a diuretic, cause a parazdoxical anti-diuretic effect in Diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus and water deprivation test
Why is Lasix NOT prescribed at night?
Diuretics and antidiuretics notes
Top 10 series: Spironolactone
Other antihypertensives
Does dopamine cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation?
Nitric oxide 

ECG related

Vascular pathophysiology

Kawasaki disease mnemonic
Kawasaki disease quiz!
Kawasakis disease mnemonic

Polyarteritis nodosa mnemonic
Behcet's syndrome mnemonic
Henoch Scholein purpura notes and mnemonic
Henoch Schonlein purpura
Interesting physical exam finding in Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Henoch Schonlein purpura
Buerger's disease
Vasculitis Classification : A way out

Abdominal aortic aneurysm notes
Diagnosis of aortic dissection

Mnemonic for arterial involvement in atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis location mnemonic

Antibodies to stop Heart disease!
Virchow's Triad Mnemonic (NEW)

Arteriovenous fistula - What happens to cardiac output and total peripheral resistance and why?
A rare type of fistula-Arterioenteric fistula

Breath sounds mnemonic
Abnormal breath sounds: Crackles, Wheeze, Rhonchi and Stridor
Crepts: An Overview

Physiology related to the respiratory system
♥ Oxygen - hemoglobin dissociation curve mnemonic
Case scenarios: When you don't give patients 100% O2 and why
Decompression sickness - Caisson's disease
Ondine's curse
What is dead space of lungs?
Allergic Broncho-Pulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) treatment mnemonic
Step 2 CK: Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) mnemonic
Symptoms of Legionella pneumonia mnemonic
Step 2 CK: Which Pneumococcal Vaccine to administer & when?
Pneumococcal vaccines mnemonic for the USMLE
CD4 and Cavitatory lesions in HIV
Swine flu categories
Tuberculosis (TB)
Ghon's complex in primary tuberculosis mnemonic
Tuberculosis mnemonics
Why secondary tuberculosis affects the upper lobe?
Chronic complications of pulmonary tuberculosis mnemonic
New TB Risk Factor
Tuberculosis: Eponymous pathologies picmonic
Pharmacology related to tuberculosis
Top 10 series: Rifampicin
Antitubercular drugs mnemonic
Treatment of MDR tuberculosis mnemonic
RNTCP 2017 Regimen

ARDS related
Pulmonary contusion vs ARDS for Step 2 CK
ARDS pathophysiology Q&A

Other pulmonary diseases
In my words: Diagnosing a PE (Pulmonary embolism)
Postural variations in pulmonary edema and embolism
Peculiar pattern of pulmonary edema
Step 2 CK: Treatment of DVT notes

Masks and Respirators (Respiratory type of PPE)
Settings for mechanical ventilation


Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary system (Abdomen)

Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn's disease and rectal involvement
Crohn's disease mnemonic
Stones in Crohn's disease
Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease mnemonic

Diseases causing malabsoprtion 
Diagnosis of celiac disease
Celiac disease mnemonic
Whipples disease mnemonic

Tumors of the GIT
Zollinger Ellison syndrome mnemonic
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Mnemonic
Atypical carcinoid syndrome mnemonic
Neuroendocrine tumours of the Stomach

Pathophysiology of achalasia mnemonic
Ulcers of the stomach mnemonic
Cushing Vs Curling Ulcer
Cushing Ulcers An overview
♥ Difference between chronic atrophic gastritis type A and type B
Watermelon stomach-GAVE!
Difference between Duodenal and Gastric Ulcer

Causes of hepatosplenomegaly mnemonic
♥ Difference between primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis mnemonic
Normal AST, ALT and ALP values mnemonic
SAAG mnemonic
Stigmata of diseases
Volume of ascitic fluid, abdominal assessment in ascites, and my viva incident
Moderate Ascites: An approach to management
It's a Carny Problem

Anemia, iron metabolism and related posts
Mentzer index mnemonic
Blood indices
Pathophysiology of symptoms in anemia
Difference between iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease
Megaloblastic Anemia
Special and differentiating investigations in Anemia
Study group discussion: Red cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Iron deficiency anemia
Diamond blackfan anemia notes and mnemonic
The Basics - Anaemia
Acute post hemorrhagic anemia
Fanconis anemia mnemonic
Causes of microcytic erythrocytosis

Study group discussion: Ferritin
Ferritin is an inflammatory disease marker
Ferrous vs Ferric mnemonic
Factors increasing iron absorption in the intestine mnemonic

Thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and others
Thalassemia mnemonic
Thalassemia blood picture mnemonic
Barts hemoglobin mnemonic
Hemolytic face mnemonic
♥ Why is there an increased white cell count in sickle cell anemia?
New drug launched for Sickle Cell Disease
Hemoglobin and erythropoiesis mnemonics
Microcytic anemias
Causes of sideroblastic anemia mnemonic
Lead poisoning mnemonic
Other posts related to anemias and hemoglobin
Causes of macrocytic anemia mnemonic
Constitutional pancytopenia mnemonic
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria mnemonic
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
♥ Drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficiency mnemonic by Huzaifa Bhopalwala
Drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficiency by Shilika
An Eye to Cyanide -2
♥ An Eye to Cyanide
Complications of blood transfusion
Complications of massive blood transfusion
Diagnosing the cause of polycythemia 

Clot or bleed :P
♥ Clotting factors mnemonic
von Willebrand disease mnemonic
Bernard Soulier syndrome mnemonic
Lines of Zahn
Study group discussion: ADP fibrinogen test
Hemolytic uremic syndrome mnemonic
Cryoprecipitate constituents mnemonic
Cryptic conundrum in ET: Thrombosis or bleeding?
Pharmacology related to clotting and bleeding
♥ Anti-platelet drugs, receptor and their deficiencies mnemonic
Tissue plasminogen activator mnemonic
Treatment of TTP mnemonic
Anticoagulants mnemonic
Warfarin and newer oral anticoagulants
Warfarin Induced Skin Necrosis
Warfarin: a procoagulant or anticoagulant?

Rh incompatibility
The Rh factor
Major And Minor Blood Cross Matching Compatibility Tests
Erythroblastosis fetalis (HDNF)
Rh incompatibility
Question: What happens when mother is Rh positive and fetus is Rh negative?
Blood Donation

Other posts related to hematology
Hematology diagrams
Cortisol and eosinophils
Noonan syndrome mnemonic
Hematology and chemical pathology mnemonics
Felix and Dreyer's tube mnemonic
IV cannula color code and size mnemonic
Why does hypophosphatemia cause an increased affinity for oxygen in the blood?
Oxygen saturation mnemonic
Study group discussion: Different sized spherocytes
Study group discussion: Cold agglutinin disease and extravascular hemolysis in liver
Study group discussion: Why are agglutinates not seen in warm type autoimmune hemolytic anemia?
Novel Monoclonal Antibodies: Emicizumab and Caplacizumab
Plasma proteins Mnemonic
Save lives, Donate blood.

Nephrology (Renal)
Principal cell function and location
Clearance of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid mnemonic
♥ Free water clearance
Glomerular filtration rate formula and mnemonic
Changes in glomerular dynamics mnemonic
♥ What is the difference between prerenal failure & acute tubular necrosis?
♥ Darrow-Yannet Diagrams simplified
Darrow Yannet diagram: Doubt
Paracellular leak in the thick ascending limb

Nephrotic, nephritic syndromes and nephropathies
How to remember Hepatitis B is associated with membranous glomerulonephritis
Hodgkins lymphoma and minimal change disease mnemonic
Membranous glomerulonephritis mnemonic
Membranous glomerulonephritis notes
Secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis mnemonic
Hodgkins lymphoma and minimal change disease
Analagesic nephropathy
Step 2 CK: Goodpastures syndrome notes

Type 1 RTA pathophysiology, notes and mnemonics
Type 2 RTA pathophysiology, notes and mnemonic

Alport syndrome
Alport syndrome mnemonic

Renal colic: Important points
Renal stones and pH of urine mnemonic

UTI Series: Pathogenesis, risk factors and diagnosis

Hexagonal crystals in cystinuria mnemonic
Envelope shaped crystals in urine: Calcium oxalate mnemonic
Dietary Risk Factors For Calcium Stones
Complications of nephrotic syndrome
Radiolucent stones mnemonic and uric acid calculi
Uric acid and struvite stones mnemonic
Staghorn calculus mnemonic
Oxalate stones in Crohn's Disease
Hematuria: A clinical pearl
Causes of hematuria mnemonic
Greenish discoloration of Urine

Acid base balance, physiology and electrolyte disturbances
The Bicarbonate buffer system
Approach to acid base disorders: Metabolic alkalosis notes
Approach to acid base disorders: Metabolic acidosis notes
Renal tubular acidosis types mnemonic
Bartters, Gitelmans and Liddles syndrome mnemonic
Conn's syndrome mnemonic
Normal arterial blood gas values and serum electrolytes mnemonic
♥ Hyperkalemia
Calcium Gluconate in Hyperkalemia
Drugs causing Hyperkalemia mnemonic by Jas
Drugs causing hyperkalemia mnemonic by IkaN
Correction of hyponatremia and hypernatremia mnemonic
Euvolemic hyponatremia algorithm

Renal Cell Carcinoma Etiology: Summary
Wilsons disease mnemonic
What causes renal bruit?

Crystal Induced Kidney Injury
Contrast induced nephropathy notes
Acute Kidney Injury due to Anticancer drugs
Chronic Renal Failure: Indications for dialysis.

Renal pharmacology
Acidification of urine
Alkalinization of urine
Drugs causing crystal induced AKI mnemonic
Erythropoietin therapy
Nephrotoxic antimicrobials

Endocrine. hormones
♥ Normal values of Calcium, Phosphate, PTH and Alkaline phosphate mnemonic
Primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism mnemonic
Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease
Study group discussion: Skeletal resistance to PTH in CRF
Zoledronic Acid

Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia mnemonic
Somogyi effect and dawn phenomenon in diabetes
Short story: Surviving Diabetes
What happens in type 1 diabetes mellitus?
What happens in type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Medicollabowesome: Does long-term coffee intake reduce type 2 diabetes mellitus risk?
Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mnemonic
Management of DKA
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors notes and mnemonics

The thyroid
Physiology and medicine related to thyroid
Wolff–Chaikoff effect mnemonic
What is the function of thyroid peroxidase?
Hyperthyroidism and hyperdynamic circulation
Pathophysiology of myopathy caused during hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism
Iodized salt test
Submission: Thyroid Acropachy

Pharmacology related to thyroid
Antithyroid drugs mnemonic
Treatment of thyrotoxic crisis mnemonic

Surgery and medicine related to thyroid
Step 2 CK: Investigating thyroid nodule
Hashimoto's & Graves' disease mnemonic
Pendred syndrome mnemonic
♥ Thyroid carcinoma mnemonic
Grossing the thyroid and differentials to be considered
Joll's triangle in thyroidectomy

Ophthalmology related to the thyroid
Grave's ophthalmopathy features mnemonic
♥ Thyroid eye signs mnemonic
Studying made simple: Ocular signs of thyrotoxicosis

Neurology (Central nervous system, CNS)

Coronal section of the brain highlighting lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus & internal capsule
Ventral and dorsal view of the brainstem highlighting cranial nerves (Diagrams only)
♥ Location of synthesis of neurotransmitters mnemonic
Solitarius and ambiguus
The flow of CSF Mnemonic
How to draw midbrain sections and lesions (Fun mnemonic diagrams)
Mnemonic for Sulci And Gyri of the cerebrum
Some thalamic nuclei and their function (mnemonic)
Corpus Callosum - Let's connect
Introduction to neuroanatomy

Medulla (Fun Mnemonic Diagrams)
Study group discussion: Medial medullary syndrome and crossed paralysis

Neurology - Clinical examination
CNS practical higher examination function

Cerebellum related
Cerebellum mnemonics
Cerebellar lesion clinical signs and symptoms mnemonic
Past Pointing Mnemonic
Cerebellum and Motor learning!
Authors' diary: Cerebellar tumor location and associated symptoms
CerebelloPontine Angle Syndrome

Nerve related
Mnemonic for foramen of cranial nerves
Cranial Nerve Exits Mnemonic (2 2 4 4 )
Cranial nerve types mnemonics
DON'T use Perfumes to test Olfactory nerve!!! But why?
Parasympathetic ganglia mnemonic
Good prognostic factors in nerve injury mnemonic
Peripheral neuropathy definition and causes (MBBS notes)
Cranial nerve III damage (Oculomotor nerve damage mnemonic)
Collier's Sign
Nerve fibres : A clinico-physiological approach

Differentiating peroneal neuropathy, sciatic nerve injury and L5 radiculopathy
Differentiating C8 radiculopathy from ulnar neuropathy

On seizures
Pathophysiology of Absence Seizures
Pathophysiology of Secondary Generalized Seizures
Significance of ictal head turning in frontal and temporal lobe seizure
Lights, Pokemon, Seizures!
Stress and epilepsy
Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy-SUDEP.
Can watching Pokémon cause seizures?
Anti-seizure pharmacology
Status Epilepticus mnemonic
Ethosuximide mnemonic
Top 10 series: Phenytoin
Anti-epileptic drugs, CYP450 induction and inhibition mnemonic
Anticonvulsants: Inhibitors and inducers of CYP450 mnemonic
Side effects of carbamazepine mnemonic

Caffeine in Migraine!
Migraines linked to Vitamin D deficiency
The basics: Migraine
Migraine Research updates
Facts and Fallacies: Almonds for Migraine
Treatment of migraine headaches mnemonic

Stroke and paralysis related
♥ Lateral medullary syndrome and lateral pontine syndrome mnemonic
♥ How to remember the difference between Wernicke's area and Broca's area
♥ The crossed paralyses: Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber & Raymond-Cestan brainstem syndromes mnemonic
Lesions of the Central Nervous System.

Brainstem Syndromes!
Brainstem syndromes-Midbrain!
Brainstem Syndromes-Pons!
Motor nuclei in the brainstem : An overview

Hyperthermia in Pontine Haemorrhage
Paradoxical undressing in fatal hypothermia

Localization of stroke based on clinical findings
How to remember ACA stroke findings
Dominant hemisphere and handedness
Handedness arises from genes in the spinal cord
Causes of ischemic stroke
Clinical manifestations of stroke within anterior circulation
Lacunar strokes : An Overview 
Contraindications to thrombolytic therapy
Hemineglect mnemonic + clock drawing
Hemiplegia History-taking : Case-related Clinical Pearls
Hemiplegia Evaluation : Case-related Clinical Pearls

Step 2 CK: Management of thromboembolic stroke
Lacunar infarction notes + mnemonic
Research Update - The Multitasking Brain.
Third nerve palsy
Deviation of the tongue, jaw, uvula and lips in cranial nerve palsy mnemonic
Interesting facts about testing 9th, 10th and 11th Cranial nerves
Bulbar and pseudobulbar palsy mnemonic
Bulbar and Psuedobulbar palsy: Overview

#QuizTime: Female with weakness of lower limbs
#AnswerTime: Female with weakness of lower limbs

High tHcy associated with mortality from acute stroke!
Mnemonic for the Ascending tracts & Descending tracts in Spinal Cord

Neurocutaneous syndromes

Micturition and neurology of the bladder
Urinary Bladder and Clinical Correlates
Micturition reflex and types of bladder
Micturition and Neurological diseases
Remembering the autonomic innervation of the bladder

Friedreichs ataxia
Friedreich's ataxia mnemonic
Friedreichs Ataxia notes and mnemonic

Delirium and Dementia mnemonics
Reversible Causes of Dementia : Mnemonic

Fact of the day: The link between Alzheimer's and Cancer
Zika virus infection and the Alzheimers
Alzhiemers due to infections?
Hypercholesterolemia and the Alzheimer's disease
Treatment of cholesterol-induced Alzheimer's
Genetics in Alzheimer's disease mnemonic

Creutzfeldt jakob disease mnemonic
Picks disease mnemonic
Lewy body dementia mnemonic

Movement disorder
Research update: Statins may increase risk of Parkinsons' disease
Parkinson's disease associated with melanoma: Research update

Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis mnemonic by IkaN
Multiple sclerosis mnemonic by Jas
Disease modifying therapies for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis - MS treatment mnemonic
Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis
Step 2 CK: Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis and mnemonics!
Lhermitte's sign Variants!
Pathophysiology: Multiple Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ALS and Riluzole mnemonic

Infections of the central nervous system
An AIDS patient with abnormal CT scan
Neurological Diseases in HIV patients
Brain abscess notes
Citrobacter causes brain abscesses in neonates
Brain Abscess - Important facts
Ring-enhancing lesion in an immunocompromised host

CMS neurology form 2 question on headache, seizures, urinary incontinence, broad based gait
CMS neurology form 2 question on fibromuscular dysplasia with paresis, occulomotor palsy
CMS neurolog form 2: Question on numbness, tingling and decreased grip strength

Headaches: Fun Facts
Headache: An Overview of Secondary Headaches
Headache: Clinical Overview of Primary Headache Disorders

Immune cells and brain development
"Inception" - A real thing!!!

CT appearance of subdural and epidural hematoma mnemonic
♥ Glasgow coma scale mnemonic
The updated Glasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow coma scale mnemonic video
Causes of Coma : mnemonic
GCS Glasgow Coma scale video by Ojas Gite

Terson Syndrome
Brain to gut: Lets talk
Favorites of brain cells: The game of genetics

Neurogenic claudication
Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome mnemonic
Multiple system atrophy (Shy Drager syndrome) mnemonic       

Site of lesion of CNS disorders that cause involuntary movements mnemonic

Restless leg syndrome notes
Akathisia vs Restless legs syndrome
Treatment of restless leg syndrome mnemonic + notes

Pseudotumor cerebri notes
Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Hypergraphia - An intriguing brain anomaly
Most efficient sleep position to clear the brain of waste
'Experience taking' from books
Talking to yourself is a sign of smartness
Brain Function Imaging.
Why do feel sleepy when we are sick?
Nightmares are a warning for serious mental problems

CNS pathology
Pilocytic astrocytoma
Pathology brain tumors mnemonic
A Neurology Case Discussion
Parinauds syndrome notes, mnemonic and a video
Craniopharyngioma mnemonic
Cerebral ring enhancing lesions
Ring-enhancing lesion in an immunocompromised host
Neuroblastoma mnemonic

CNS pharmacology
♥ Antiparkinsonism drugs mechanism mnemonics
Top 10  series: Gabapentin
Mechanism of action of gabapentin and pregabalin

Anesthesia, analgesia, muscle relaxants and tranquilizers
Benzodiazepenes as preanaesthetic medication
Fact of the day: Paradoxical agitation with benzodiazepines
Minimum alveolar concentration, blood gas partition coefficient, AV gradient of anaesthetics simplified
Mapelson circuits in anaesthesia mnemonic
Local anaesthetics - What's in a name?
Laughing gas aka Nitrous oxide
Anaesthetic of choice in renal and hepatic failure
Baclofen and Dantrolene mnemonic
Baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence
GABA A and GABA B receptor antagonist mnemonic
Malignant hyperthermia
Malignant hyperthermia part 2

♥ Opioids and other analgesics mnemonic
Inflammatory pain & NSAIDs
Opioids analgesics classification + NEET notes

Alcohol and Drug Interactions: Disulfiram-like Reaction
Alcohol and Drug Interactions: 2nd part
Alcohol and drug interactions: 3rd part
Alcohol and Drug Interactions: 4th Part
Study group discussion: Alcohol and liver enzymes

Joint related
Types of arthritis
Transient synovitis vs septic arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis mnemonic
Heberden’s and Bouchard’s Nodes Mnemonic
Felty's syndrome mnemonic
Anakinra mnemonic
Psoriatic arthritis mnemonic
Rheumatoid Arthritis deformities: Mnemonic

Gout and pseudogout mnemonic
Why is gout more common in men?
Sleep Apnea linked with Acute Gout attacks

Pharmacology related to rheumatology


Nail changes in psoriasis mnemonic
Different types of skin lesions (as in rashes)
♥ Difference between Pemphigus vulgaris & Bullous pemphigoid mnemonic
Medipicsowesome: Bullous skin disorders-1 pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid
Pemphigus vulgaris vs Paraneoplastic Pemphigus vulgaris (PNP)
Histology: Mnemonic for the layers of the Epidermis (Skin)
Mnemonics- Dermatomal Distribution easiest way to remember
Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS)  / Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) -Part 1
Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS)  / Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) -Part 2
Step 2 CK: Confusing vesicular skin manifestations
Koebner Phenomenon
Growth Rates in Dermatology

Skin cancer mnemonics
Melanoma marker mnemonic
MIL: Tinea
MIL: Psoriasis
MIL: Impetigo
MIL: Lichen Planus
MIL : Pemphigus Vulgaris

Plastic surgery
Medical humour: Face-lift
How would you look upside down?
Leech therapy for venous congestion
Pharmacology related to dermatology and skin
Treatment of acne mnemonic
Drug of choice: Dermatology

Musculoskeletal / Neuromuscular medicine
EMG and NCS - Review
Step 2 CK: Differentials of proximal muscle weakness
Neuromuscular (myoneural) junction
Myasthenia gravis and muscles involved
Myotonic dystrophy notes and mnemonic
NBME 7 question on muscle weakness
Motor Neurone Disease : Why and How to rule it out.

Myopathies series -Part 1
Myopathies series- Part 2
Myopathies series -Part 3
Myopathies series - Part 4
Myopathies series -Part 5
Myopathies series - Part 6
Myopathies series- Part 7
Drugs that can cause toxic myopathies

Other posts related to general medicine
Nail disorders, diagnosis and abnormalities due to systemic diseases mnemonic
Nail Changes in Medicine : A Summary
Clubbing : Why it occurs
Lymphedema - High yeild Information.
Fisher's Rules

General pharmacology
Top 10 series: Everolimus
Redistribution of drug
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Drug interaction
♥ Kinetics of drug elimination simplified
Pharmacology study tip
Study group discussion: Why adrenaline is NOT given by the intravenous route?
Adrenaline : Dosage
Drug Doses
Awesome Twosome Drugs
Liposomal Preparations : A Quick Review
Drug Induced Edema : Mnemonic
Drugs causing gingival hyperplasia mnemonic
Uses of herbal medications in the US mnemonic

♥ Organisms covered by Azithromycin mnemonic
Organisms covered by Ampicillin mnemonic

Cephalosporins mnemonic
Cephalosporins : A mnemonic to get you out of the Cepho-pocalypse
Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime

Metronidazole notes and mnemonic

Aminoglycosides made easy
Treatment of Babesiosis
Nocardia treatment mnemonic
MAC prophylaxis mnemonic
Antipseudomonal antibiotics mnemonic
Antibiotics for Listeria monocytogenes infection
Syndromic Management Of RTI/SRI

Pharmacology related to the endocrine system
Uses of somatostatin and bromocriptine notes & mnemonics
Bromocriptine : Utility Review
Drugs causing SIADH mnemonic
Hormones that have similar structure and thus clinical effects
Long term high dose steroids - Prevention of complications
Role of Glucocorticoids in Developmental events
Corticosteroid Side Effects Notes and Mnemonics
Adverse effects and contraindications of steroids mnemonic
Adverse effects of Glucocorticoids mnemonic
Steroid synthesis pathway ( Clinical aspect)

Oral Rehydration Therapy (Prize winning poster)

Neonatal screening test mnemonic
Neonatal Resuscitation Tray
Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol
Remembering Apgar scoring.
Apgar score in preterm infants
What is the difference? : Meconium vs. Meconium Ileus
Classical Findings of RDS Infant!
Diaphragmatic hernia : Mnemonic and Review
Infants of Diabetic Mothers (IDM) : A clinical overview
Caput v/s Cephalhematoma - Ways to remember.
Cystic fibrosis and prolonged neonatal jaundice
Necrotizing Enterocolitis - Important points
Why do newborns have a higher heart rate?
Transient Tachypnea of Newborn notes
Polycythemia in newborn notes

Fever with rash in childhood mnemonic
Rash involving hands and feet mnemonic
Viral Exanthems - Mnemonic
Image based MCQ on pediatric infections

Malnutrition: Waterlow Gomez classification menmonic
Low Weight in Cerebral Palsy : Possibilities

Management of nephrotic syndrome (Mnemonic + notes for MBBS exam)
Hydrops fetalis mnemonic
Meckel Gruber syndrome mnemonic
Beckwith-wiedemann syndrome mnemonic
Medipicsowesome: Adams Oliver syndrome
Medipicsowesome: Thanatophoric dysplasia

Pediatrics residency series: 1. Intro
Gastrointestinal system
Submissions: Indications of removing nasogastric tube post op mnemonic
MCQ mnemonics series: Mnemonic for a condition causing lower abdominal pain
Abdominal trauma
Step 2 CK: Management of liver laceration
Step 2 CK: Blunt abdominal trauma
Flap Valve Mechanism of Inguinal Canal
Abdominal anatomy mnemonics related to hernia
Types of meshes for hernia repair
Surgery mnemonics
Paraumbilical hernia mnemonic
Fascia of the thigh : Mnemonic
Spermatic Cord contents : Mnemonic
Pantaloon Hernia
Esophagus, stomach and upper GI tract
“PILL” Esophagitis.
Pill induced esophagitis mnemonic
Step 2 CK: Manometric findings of achalasia and scleroderma
Step 2 CK: Differentiating ileus from SBO
Post operative ileus ( mechanical obstruction vs paralytic )
Pyloric stenosis mnemonic
Hematemesis mnemonic
Risk factors for carcinoma stomach mnemonic
Treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer mnemonic
Peptic ulcer
Fact of the day: Milk and acidity
H. pylori infection : Facts and Fallacies
Sugiura Futagawa operation mnemonic
Surgery for acute bleeding varices and portal hypertension that cause portoazygos disconnection mnemonic
Treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding mnemonic
Duodenal atresia notes and mnemonic
Pharmacology related to the esophagus
Medical management of variceal bleeding mnemonic
Pharmacological agents that relax lower esophageal sphincter mnemonic

Surgery related to pancreas
Step 2 CK: Blunt pancreatic trauma
Ransons criteria for prognosis of acute pancreatitis mnemonic
Causes of Acute Pancreatitis
Cullen's sign, Grey Turner's sign and Fox's sign seen in pancreatitis mnemonic
♥ Child Pugh score mnemonic
Somatostatinoma mnemonic
Pancreatic cysts
Pharmacology related to pancreas
Review questions and mnemonic on drug induced pancreatitis
Antibiotics that can penetrate pancreas mnemonic

Acalculous cholecystitis notes
Image based question on gallstone
♥ Choledochal cyst types mnemonic
Whipple's triad mnemonic
Charcot's triad mnemonic
Triad of Charcot
Exception to Courvoisier's law mnemonic
Saint's triad mnemonic
Reynolds pentad
Emphysematous Cholecystitis

Lower GI tract
Intussusception mnemonic
Fistula in ano mnemonics
♥ Clinical features of acute appendicitis mnemonic
Complicated vs. Non complicated appendicitis
Alvarado Score Parameters Mnemonic ; For Appendicitis
Ultrasonography in Acute Appendicitis
Tumors of colon and various polyposis syndrome mnemonic
Cronkhite Canada syndrome
Ano-Rectal anatomy: Above and below pectinate line

Genitourinary surgery:
Unilateral and bilateral causes of hydronephrosis

Differentials of inguinoscrotal swelling
Fournier's gangrene mnemonic

Epidural anaesthesia mnemonic
Why use glycine in TURP?

Breast and mammary glands related
Anatomy of the breast
Draw with me video: Lymphatic drainage of the breast
Diagrams on Lymphatic drainage of the breast
Pathology and surgery related to the breast
How to remember lobular carcinoma spreads to contralateral breast
♥ Breast Cancer TNM Staging mnemonic
Paget's cells mnemonic
BRCA1 vs BRCA2 gene mutations and associated chromosomes (mnemonic)

Limb related
Types of perforators of the lower limb mnemonic
Intermittent claudication notes
Treatment of Varicose veins mnemonic
Varicose Veins
What does flush ligation mean?
Superficial and deep veins in upper and lower extremity mnemonic

Internship dairies: Finding a vein
Head transplant
Hair transplant or follicle transplant
Edge of an ulcer : An overview
Causes of a Non Healing Ulcer: Summary
Modified Allen Test
Differentials of lower limb ulceration:- Venous ,arterial or neuropathic?

♥ Types of sequestrum
Saucerization and Arthrodesis
De Quervain syndrome notes
Clinical and radiological features of rickets mnemonic
Age of completion of ossification mnemonic
Foot drop (Notes)
Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) and club foot surgical treatment mnemonic
♥ Bones that undergo avascular necrosis mnemonic
Sticks like a gum
Causes of triple deformity of the knee mnemonic
Bone in bone appearance mnemonic
The meaning of valgus (with doubt + mnemonic)
Torn meniscus and inability to extend the knee
Mnemonics for special orthopedic tests
High ankle and low ankle sprain mnemonic
Composition of Bone cement

Fracture related (Break a bone xD )
Supracondylar fracture of the humerus
Bankart's and Hill Sach's lesion mnemonic
Flexion Tear Drop Fracture

Osgood Schlatter disease mnemonic
Scaphoid fracture mnemonic
Injuries that can occur due to fall on outstretched hand mnemonic

Colles fracture mnemonic
Colles' fracture
Casts (Colle's Cast)

Montegia and galezzia fractures mnemonic by DoctorWizard
Monteggia and Galeazzi fracture mnemonic by Sushrut Dongargaonkar
Monteggia fracture- dislocation
Galeazzi fracture- dislocation

Rolando fracture mnemonic
Direction of growing end of bone, opposite to direction of nutrient artery

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis mnemonic
Tuberculosis spine mnemonic
Tuberculosis spine mnemonic (Potts disease)
Clinical features of tuberculosis spine mnemonic

Bone tumors and pathology
Composition of Bone cement

Soap bubble appearance on X ray:Differential diagnosis

Submissions: Bone talk - How to remember the most commons of bone tumors
Bone tumors
Most common sites of bone tumors mnemonic
Ewing's Sarcoma- A review.

Osteogenesis imperfecta mnemonic

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Reproductive anatomy, histology and physiology
Fallopian tube facts and mnemonics
Basic modalities of Transitional Zone
Tests for ovulation mnemonic
Semen report notes + mnemonic
Which cell secretes what? Male reproductive system mnemonics
Which cell secretes what? A simplified ovarian cycle comic video
Which cell secretes what? A simplified ovarian cycle comic
Female genital tumors mnemonics
Why smoking is protective for endometrial cancer?
♥ FIGO staging of carcinoma cervix
Fact of the day: Prior breast biopsy and risk of cancer
Step 2 CK: Oral contraceptive pills and cancer
Immunotherapy for Prostate cancer
HPV vaccines
Menopause related
Hormonal changes during menopause mnemonic
Estrogen and osteoporosis
Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis
Indications for oestrogen therapy mnemonic
Pathophysiology of atrophic vaginitis
Menopause: Facts
Infectious disease and microbiology related
SERM for vulvovaginal atrophy mnemonic
Vaginal candidiasis (Candida infection) mnemonic
♥ Trichomonas vaginalis mnemonic
Bacterial vaginosis: Difference between Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardenella vaginalis with mnemonic
Most common causes of non gonococcal urethritis
Painful and painless genital ulcers mnemonic
Fact of the day: Gonorrhea and vulvovaginitis
MCQ mnemonics series: Genital tuberculosis most common site
DeLancey supports of genital tract mnemonic
Fothergills repair or Manchester operation mnemonic
PCOS with Sherlock Holmes 
Non-Contraceptive uses of the Condom
Menstrual cycle and related problems
Hirsutism mnemonic
Dermoid cyst mnemonic
McCune Albright syndrome mnemonic
Precocious puberty mnemonics
Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone
Fact of the day: Testosterone administration impairs 'cognitive reflection' in men
Fact of the day : Easier approach shot to the pouch of Douglas
Pharmacology related to gynecology
Trastuzumab notes + mnemonic
Oxytocin by IkaN
Oxytocinby Maahii
GnRH agonists, GnRH antagonists, uses and mnemonic
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) mnemonic
Mechanism of action of Everolimus in breast cancer
Aromatase inhibitors and ER positive breast cancer
Talazoparib: Zenith of novelty

Genetics and embryo related disorders
X-Linked Dominant Disorders.
Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome mnemonic
Obesity in Prader-Willi syndrome and WAGR syndrome
Crown rump length and gestational sac diameter
Fetal Hydantoin syndrome mnemonic
Turner's syndrome mnemonic
Edward syndrome notes and mnemonic by Yeshwanth
Edward syndrome mnemonic by IkaN
Patau syndrome note
Potter Sequence
Potter syndrome mnemonic
Pierre Robin Sequence mnemonic
Karyotype seen in different disorders
Difference between Caput Succedaneum and Cephalhematoma
Why do infants of diabetic mothers develop polycythemia?
High maternal cortisol good for foetal brain
Buzz words for congenital syphilis!
Congenital syphilis picmonic
Down's Syndrome
Mnemonico diagnostico: Klinefelter's syndrome
Kallman syndrome mnemonic
Algrove Syndrome Picmonic
Abortion related
What is extra ovular space?
What is the difference between menstrual regulation and vacuum evacuation?
Types of abortion
Prostaglandins mnemonic for obstetrics
Types of abortion: Explanation and mnemonic
Antenatal care
Beta HCG notes
Nonstress test and biophysical profile mnemonic video
Nonstress test and biophysical profile mnemonic video notes
Biophysical profile mnemonic and step 2 CK notes
Gestation and labor-related
Breech mnemonic
Breech delivery diagrams
What is the significance of pain during child birth?
Breast feeding
Breast feeding and maternal cancer

Community medicine (Preventive and social medicine, PSM / SPM)
Biostatistics mnemonics, tips & tricks
Relation between Type I, Type II errors and Null hypothesis (mnemonic)
Number needed to treat and number needed to harm mnemonic
Sensitivity and specificity flash cards
Validity and reliability mnemonic
Likelihood ratio mnemonic
Save, near miss and preventable adverse effect mnemonic

Understanding randomization in clinical trials
Data Collection Methods

Behavioural Science (Psychiatry)
Order of decision making
Bio medical ethics
Making Referrals - Bio Medical Ethics
How to Behave like a Good Doctor?
A case on Medical ethics

Step 2 CK: Psychiatry tip for possible depression questions
Seasonal affective disorder
mPFC activation in depression: The Associations
Fact of the day : Reduced white matter due to depression
Depression: A Summary

Pharmacology related to depression
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) - MOA and side effects
Difference between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and serotonin syndrome
Serotonin receptor agonist and antagonist notes
Uses of tricyclic antidepressants mnemonic
Ketamine - A new antidepressant!!
Bupropion mnemonic
Mirtazapine mnemonic

Schizophrenia subtypes mnemonic
How I remember duration of brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform & schizophrenia
Multi - vitamin supplements beneficial for schizophrenics
Poor prognostic factors for schizophrenia mnemonic
Schizophrenia First Rank Criteria : Mnemonic
Schizophrenia: Types and Prognosis mnemonic

Antipsychotics (Pharmacology related to psychosis / schizophrenia)
Side effects of atypical antipsychotics mnemonic
Antipsychotics names and side effects mnemonic
How to remember the side effect of quietapine is cataract
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome : A Crisp Overview
Risperidone mechanism of action mnemonic

Fact of the day: Valbenazine for treatment of tardive dyskinesia
CMS psychiatry form 4 question on tardive dyskinesia
Varenicline mnemonic

Timeline in Psychiatry
Mnemonic for personality disorders
Mental distractions
Somatoform disorders mnemonic
Berksonian bias, Pygmalion effect and Hawthorne effect mnemonic
The Oedipus Complex
Stockholm syndrome
Alice in Wonderland syndrome
Malingering and factitious disorders
Munchausen's syndrome

#QuizTime: A patient with delusion
#AnswerTime: A patient with delusion

Submissions: Mature defense mechanisms mnemonic
Defense mechanisms with images

Tourette syndrome mnemonic
Narcolepsy mnemonic
Cataplesy and cataplexy mnemonic
Step 2 CK: Treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy
Night tremors vs Nightmares
Neurotransmitters associated with sleep mnemonic
REM, NREM and dream content recall mnemonic

Research update: Genetics of Anorexia nervosa located
Pathophysiology of anorexia in chronic kidney disease

Step 2 CK: Treatment of bipolar disorder
Step 2 CK: Treatment of anxiety disorders
How I remember the duration of symptoms for Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) required for diagnosis
Treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) mnemonic 
Pharmacotherapy for PTSD in pregnancy mnemonic

Step 2 CK: ADHD treatment
Adult ADHD : A Clinical Overview
Autism and ADHD : The clinical intersection

Forensic medicine

IPC and CrPC mnemonics
IPC 319, 320, 323, 324, 325, 326, 334, 335 mnemonic
CrPC 174 and 176 mnemonic
IPC 375, 376 and 377 mnemonic
IPC 300, 302, 307, 308 and 309 mnemonic
IPC 176 177 178 179 mnemonic

Forensic toxicology notes part - 3
Forensic toxicology notes part - 2
Forensic Toxicology notes part - 1

Pharmacology related to ANS (Autonomic nervous system) and toxicology
Marijuana and cannabinoids intoxication mnemonic
Methamphetamine intoxication mnemonic
MDMA mnemonic
Phencyclidine intoxication mnemonic
NBME 7 question on intoxication
Theophylline toxicity mnemonic
Beta blocker intoxication

Cocaine and beta blockers
Cocaine blocks reuptake of norepinephrine mnemonic
Cocaine in the brain - "The Addiction"
Cocaine addiction and iron concentration in brain

♥ Opioids and other analgesics mnemonic

♥ Mechanism of action of anticholinesterase enzyme
Treatment of organophosphorus poisoning mnemonic
Algorithmic Management of OPC poisoning
Atropine poisoning
Image based question on toxicology
Calcium monitoring in ethylene glycol poisoning
No cyanosis in cyanide poisoning. Why?
Arsenic Poisoning
Chelating agents mnemonic

USMLE Step 2 CS - Clinical Skills exam

USMLEowesome: Basics about the Step 2 CS exam
♥ Domestic violence
♥ Sample closures
Counselling for PTSD
Physical exam findings in a patient with calf pain
Headache LOC tip
Step 2 CS: Neurology Case
Musculoskeletal patient note
Memory loss / confusion
Writing a psychiatry note and mini mental status
Noisy breathing
Headache / photophobia
Hoarseness of voice
What to ask in cases involving joint
What to ask a patient with positive pregnancy test
Back pain causes mnemonic
Hearing loss mnemonic
♥ Blue sheet
Asking for sexual history
Transition phrases
Child with diarrhea mnemonic
How to introduce yourself
Writing patient note
Loss of consciousness
Writing patient note
Upper limb neurological examination 
Do you think I have cancer?

USMLE Step 3 CCS related posts

From the Author's diary

Residency and burn out advice

Medicine and being human, patient interactions, etc.
Authors' diary: Ponder

Surviving residency / internship / intern year
Lab values Fishbone skeleton / Ishikawa Diagram in text
Authors' diary: Assessment and plan

Exam stuff (USMLE, PG CET, MBBS)

Which books do I study from while in second year MBBS?
How to study for final year MBBS

How to study for NEET by Pratibha Jha (AIR 21)
NEET preparation in early years of MBBS by Pratibha Jha (AIR 21)
Preparing for NEET: Part 1 by Sakkan
Preparing for NEET - Part 2 by Sakkan
♥ Study tips on preparing for Indian PG CET by Dr. Prateek Joshi
An overview of the NEET PG entrance exam by Dr. Prateek Joshi
My NEET experience by Aditi
Repeating PG entrance exam
♥ Preparing for MCQ exams in Medical School by Jay

Medicowesome Flashcards 3 download
Medicowesome Flashcards 4 download

Posts written by Sakkan
The University of wisconsin solution
A tip for confusing things

Authors diary - Sushrut
♥ Diseases and their twins
Deceptive appearances.
About me by Srikar Sama 

Posts written by Doctorthinker on USMLE
♥ A path to USMLE contents page
2. My Journey
3. FAQs regarding the application for USMLE Step exams
8. United States Clinical Experience (USCE)
9. Research
10. Letter of Recommendation (LOR)
11. Travelling in the USA
12. Stay/ Accommodation
13. MATCH season
15. FAQs related to programs
16. NRMP registration
17. Contacting the programs after Sep 15th
18. Interview season and FAQs related to interviews
19. Phone interview
20. Post interview communication with the programs
21. Factors related to the MATCH
22. Contacts in the USA
23. Rank order list (ROL)
24. SOAP
25. What to expect during the interview season?
26. FAQs asked by the members of the USMLE page
27. Personal Statement

Authors diary - Doctorthinker
It’s a desi (Indian) Medico’s thing! Part 2
It's a desi (Indian) Medico's thing!


  1. I am just preparing to get into med school, and some of your articles have really helped me out in this :D thank you, and god bless

    1. I am SO glad they help you & I hope you do get into med school.. Thank you for the compliments and the blessings! =)

  2. This is the best blog! I work in the clinical research field and these entries are great for refreshing my memory. Thank you

    1. OMG wow I didn't know it'd be helpful for someone at the clinical research level. Thank you for the compliments! ^__^

  3. Awesome! T H A N K. Y O U!!!!

  4. You sir are the best! Keep up the great work! :)

  5. You are a blessing..i am so glad that I found your website before my exam.

  6. do you have any idea how cute you are..wish you all the success in you :** :))

  7. you are awesome and sooo sweet. thank you thank you thank you ^_^

  8. I am going to take a Medical Scientist ahead so with your notes I think i can make it...

    Thank you soo much.

    1. That'll be so cool. Becoming a scientist and all. You can make it!
      Keep us updated on your journey :D

  9. I love love love your blog! I plan on going through all your posts! You really are awesome! :)
    And please can you help me with brain tumors pathology? I just cant remember which is which.
    Thank you so much. Keep up the good work!

    1. Thank you, thank you, thank you so much!

      Yaay! Though it's a lot to go through. One at a time :D
      Here you go, love -

  10. The way u reply makes feel u r a girl, are u? and thankyou so so much for this wonderful blog, u make life so easy :)

  11. plz tell me how to answer in viva know eveytime i shake and so afrid..will be facing gynae nd surgery viva this tym..plz tell some tips..:)

  12. Can you please make a code for remembering enzymes involved in heme synthesis and their deficiency associated porphyrias?

    1. I will make them when I get back home. Till when do you need it?

    2. As and when you're free...and I wish you would bring back the comment box (on the side previously)so we could send our requests through it, it was easy to see your response could avoid cluttering your comment section with requests that way.

    3. I couldn't manage the spam on cbox. Too many advertisements. I'll get it back later perhaps!

    4. Hey, can you manage the mnemonic by 23rd next week? Would help me a lot.

  13. Published!

    Heme synthesis mnemonic

  14. can you write awesome mnemonic for lysosomal storage diseases? Thanks :)

    1. I have a mnemonic, but it's not mine. I'll post it soon though.

  15. Paediatrics and Orthopaedics has been wrongly spelled on this page. Please correct it. No offense intended. I'm using this website almost everyday now. It's well done, keep posting. Thanks.

  16. Ur mnemonics r very much helped me a lot. thanku so much.. Ur doing a great nd nice work too..

  17. Okay, so I'm in MBBS 1st yr and I have final practical exams in 2 weeks. I'm kinda nervous about it. Any tips?

    1. It's normal to be nervous. Try to stay calm though.

      Ask other batches what they were asked in the exam. Examiners are likely to repeat questions.

      Make sure you know questions related to topics that'll be asked for sure (Like slides in anatomy, blood in physiology)

      Greet the examiner, dress up properly, don't argue and be polite. If you don't know answer to a particular question, say it - It'll buy time for other questions.

      If you have studied well, your vivas will go great. Good luck!

    2. Thanks. And I don't know if its good or bad, but my batch is the 1st one to give vivas in all the 3 subjects...

    3. It's good! :D I gave viva for all the three subjects too.

      Vivas are fun if you know your content and the examiner takes a fair knowledgeable viva.

      Vivas make the best stories after you pass!

    4. I bet they do! :D

  18. I've seen so many posts about usmle. If you have any info about PLAB can you post about it too?

    1. No, unfortunately, I don't have much info on it :(

  19. Thnx 4 all d posts. It hlpd a lot. My frndz r joinin coaching 4 pg entrance exms in 2nd yr. Shld I also join? I wl gve pg entrance aftr mbbs is ovr.

    1. You're welcome.

      It depends on a lot of factors - Can you study well on your own? Will you be able to afford coaching financially? Do you have the mental stamina to do traveling and attend long hours?

      You may not require coaching (I didn't join any classes!) but you need to decide based on your abilities.

  20.'s interesting and relieving that people like u exist...was feeling our kind were rare species..(when art ..poetry meets when we are born...)
    Keep up the good publish a book if you gone this far...iam a good artist myself and would love to work with you if you ever be in need of an passionate medical cartoonist....Iam preparing for entrance pg myself...but once when this is of course...I would love to venture into making medical graphic novels.
    My most recent read is ur heparin the interactive way u adopted...lot like the method I use for making maters intresting
    It comes quite surprisingly that your a woman...but it explains the passionate approach..
    Once again ..kudos for the great work

    1. Thank you so much for the compliments. People who appreciate so openly are rare too.

      I'm amazed that you think that way, the words about art, poetry and medicine are truly beautiful.

      I will try :)

      I am in the process of publishing a immunology book (Immunowesome). It'll be out soon!

      I would love to work with you someday, do email me when you feel like you want to bring your creative side out!

      I don't think we need to distinguish passion through sex, men are passionate too :)

      Thanks a lot again <3

  21. Your work us great. I wish I'd found your blog during my final sem. Anyways I'm grabbing some quick tricks for pg entrance from you now. :)

    1. Thank you so much for the compliments.. On my previous posts as well.

      Oh well, now you do. Hope you have fun studying for PG :)

  22. Great website!! I really wonder if you have an essay about" why should we keep tourniquet while drawing blood?".Our teacher told us there are 2 reasons first is to keep vein swollen but the second is homework and i couldnt find it anywhere. Do you have any information about this? :)

    1. Thank you! Umm.. Gee I don't know.

      The first is definitely making the vein more engorged and swollen so it's easier to feel and you are less likely to miss it.

      I think the second one is stabilizing the vein by stretching the skin and underlying tissues away from the venipuncture site. If you have ever done blood collection from an elderly patient, you must know how hard it is! The lax skin makes it really difficult. So tourniquets are used in elderly even if the vein is visible just to taut the skin.

      "Lift the tied tourniquet and stretch the skin and underlying tissues away from the venipuncture site. Then gently lower the tourniquet. You may be able to retract several inches of skin and tissue away from the site with this maneuver. which is especially helpful with elderly patients) who have less collagen, prolastn and elastin than younger patients) and patients who have lost a lot of weight recently."

      But I'm just guessing. Do let me know when your teacher tells you the real answer!

    2. Oh wow! I am so impressed! I have never collected blood from anybody yet so i didnt think that way. Sounds logical! I guess i am going to learn it in this week of course i would let u now if i learn it :) umm... one more question too. What if we have an overweight patient like is it because the same reason? I mean retract sev. inc. of sk. and -lipid- tissue away from the site. Because lipid is a fluid thing cuz of cholestrol and do we need to stabilize that lipid tissue too? (Sorry for my bad English :S i am still trying to improve ) ( By the way i might know things wrong i am brand new med student :D i would be happy if u correct them if they are wrong) Thanks for giving time for me (^-^)

    3. Aww. Good luck on your first collection. Let me know how it goes.

      I am not sure if it works in obese people too. But it must.

      Oh your English is fine. Language isn't a barrier to communication.

      I will always give you time in the long run. Message me whenever you need me ^__^

  23. Hi IkaN. Brilliant website. Kudos. I just wanted to know if I could be a part of your awesome blog? I have completed all the USMLE steps and feel my experience can help. I have also learnt ways to manage websites and even that will be a big boost. Let me know. Thank you. Cheers.

    1. Hey!
      Of course, you can be a part of Medicowesome.
      We welcome people to write for us all the time =)
      Email us at

  24. hey !
    i jst love ur blog , trust me for any first yr student like ur blog is a blessing to jst pass the final exams
    i hope u continue to inspire and blog stuff that helps soo many medicos like me
    all the best !

  25. Hi Ikan
    Could you plz make a mnemonic for urine diagnostic indices for differentiation of pre renal and intrinsic renal failure..

    1. You mean this?

  26. Hi,
    Does anyone have any link to a resource of a live audio-guided endoscopy for celiac disease? I was only able to find one without any verb comments. I'm hoping to use it in presentation.

  27. Hi Everyone,
    I'm struggling with acid-base balance (ABG). Any awesome resources for remembering these concepts?

  28. Guys! Can you give your take on the whole Trump situation?

    1. Too soon to comment but let's see how this years match works out.

      They do need doctors in the US. That's for sure.

  29. can anyone give me the What's app link of this page?


  30. It's awesome...thank god ...I got it before examz....its been of get help...

  31. Can you arrange each subject in different tab .. Its very hard in mobile to scroll down whole page to find one topic.

    1. I can try but keeping the different pages up to date will be really hard for me.

  32. God bless You.
    May Allah give you success in this world and hereafter for making life easy for medical students.
    Jazak Allahu Khairan.

  33. Huge respect for you. You are so hardworking and inspiring
    I have massive respect for you

  34. I have been following this page since more than 2 years so just thought to thankyou for this amazing content!!! Thankyou so much ma'am :) please continue to post such awesome content. Thanks a lot to you maam , medicoawesome is making medicine intresting for me.. thankyouuuuuu

  35. Hey , is this page active

  36. Please contact me . 9573259219


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