Showing posts with label Dermatology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dermatology. Show all posts

Saturday, May 1, 2021

Lyme's disease - a review


Lyme's disease/ Lyme borreliosis

A patient with a typical history of frequent visits to the woods with bull's eye rash, neurologic features, cardiac abnormalities, and musculoskeletal features.

Monday, June 8, 2020

Topical Drug Absorption.

Hello everyone!

This is the brief mention about the extent of topical absorption of drugs. 

In decreasing order-

Posterior auricular
Dorsum of hand
Plantar area.

Absorption mainly depends on the thickness of the skin and is inversely proportional to it.

Hope this was helpful! 

Let's learn Together! 

Dr. Medha Vyas 

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Topical vs Oral antifungal mnemonic

Hey my friends, a common question in qbanks is when to use topical vs oral antifungals in Tinea infections.
Well, you can use the following mnemonic:

Tinea CAPitis => Imagine a CAP covering your head/scalp so you need a systemic treatment => Oral treatment (eg: Terbinafine) to reach it.
Scientifically, the systemic/oral treatment is needed to reach the hair shaft.

Tinea Corporis: Since Tinea Capitis is the oral one, Tinea Corporis is the topical one :)

Murad :)

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

CEAP classification of Chronic venous insufficiency

Hello Awesomites!

The classification and staging of chronic venous insufficiency (clinical severity) can be measured by a scoring system called clinical manifestations, etiological factors, anatomical distribution, and pathophysiological conditions.

Happy Studying!
Upasana Y. :)

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

WhiteBoard Summary: Lichen Planus

Hi guys, let’s talk dermatology.

Lichen Planus is a papulosquamous disease that affects skin, nails and mucous membrane, caused by cell-mediated immunity of unknown aetiology. Here’s a (not-so-white) whiteboard summary.

[Please click on the image to enhance it]

- Morphological variants can be hypertrophic, atrophic, erosive, follicular, annular, vesicular, bullous, actinic or pemphigoid.
- Lichenoid reaction can be caused by drugs (thiazides, antimalarials, penicillamine, gold) and even in Graft vs. Host disease.
- Those with steroid resistance/ intolerance are treated by hydroxyquine, methotrexate or sulfasalazine.
- Psoralens can also be used along with UV-A radiation.
- Patient education regarding self-limiting and recurrent nature of the disease is important.

- Ashish Singh

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

GPA vs MPA Flares

The distinction between GPA ( Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis) and MPA (Microscopic Polyangiitis) is important chiefly because of differential tendencies to flare. Although both diseases may flare after the achievement of remission, GPA is substantially more likely to relapse.

That's all.

Bhopalwala. H

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Classification of Cryoglobulinemia

●The Brouet classification criteria is the most commonly used system that classifies cryoglobulinemia into three different subgroups based on their Ig composition. These classification criteria are also useful in that the subgroups partly correlate with pathogenicity and clinical manifestations.

•In type I cryoglobulinemia, the cryoglobulins are monoclonal Ig, typically IgG or IgM, and less commonly IgA or free Ig light chains. Type I cryoglobulinemia develops in the setting of protein-secreting monoclonal gammopathies such as a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or a B-cell lineage malignancy (eg, multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia).

•In type II cryoglobulinemia, the cryoglobulins are composed of a mixture of a monoclonal IgM (or IgG or IgA) with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity and polyclonal Ig. Type II cryoglobulins are often associated with persistent viral infections, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and are associated with the mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome. Other clinical associations with type II cryoglobulinemia include other infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV, autoimmune diseases (mainly systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] and Sjögren's syndrome), and lymphoproliferative disorders.

•In type III cryoglobulinemia, the cryoglobulins are composed of a mixture of polyclonal IgG (all isotypes) and polyclonal IgM. These cases are often secondary to autoimmune disorders, but can also be associated with infections (mainly HCV).

Bhopalwala. H

Thursday, February 21, 2019

Skin Findings in Dermatomyositis

Skin findings — Several distinct cutaneous eruptions, which are generally evident at the time of clinical presentation, occur in DM but not in PM . Other skin changes may occur in patients with PM and in patients with DM and are not specific to either disorder. Dermatologic manifestations may be prominent but can be quite subtle in some patients.

Characteristic dermatomyositis findings — Gottron's papules and the heliotrope eruption are the hallmark and likely pathognomonic features of DM. Gottron's sign, photodistributed erythema, poikiloderma, nailfold changes, scalp involvement, and calcinosis cutis are also characteristic and useful in distinguishing DM from PM.

●Gottron's papules – Gottron's papules are erythematous to violaceous papules that occur symmetrically over the extensor (dorsal) aspects of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints (picture 1A-C). In addition, these lesions may involve the skin between the MCP and IP joints, particularly when the eruption is prominent. Gottron's papules often have associated scale and may ulcerate. When scaling is present, the lesions may mimic psoriasis or lichen planus.

●Gottron's sign – Definitions used for Gottron's sign have varied in the literature. We define Gottron's sign as the presence of erythematous to violaceous macules, patches, or papules on the extensor surfaces of joints in sites other than the hands, particularly the elbows, knees, or ankles. By contrast, some authors have used the term Gottron's papules to refer to papules in these areas, reserving Gottron's sign for macular or patch-like lesions (picture 2) .

●Heliotrope eruption – The heliotrope eruption is an erythematous to violaceous eruption on the upper eyelids, sometimes accompanied by eyelid edema, which, at times, may be quite marked .

●Facial erythema – Patients may have midfacial erythema that can mimic the malar erythema seen in SLE . In contrast to those with SLE, patients with DM will often have involvement of the nasolabial fold, which can be helpful in distinguishing these two photosensitive midfacial eruptions.

●Photodistributed poikiloderma (including the shawl and V signs) – Poikiloderma refers to skin that demonstrates both hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, as well as telangiectasias and epidermal atrophy. In DM, patients may demonstrate poikiloderma in any photo-exposed site; however, classic areas of involvement are the upper back (shawl sign) and the V of the neck and upper chest. The poikiloderma in DM often presents with a violaceous hue. Early in the course of cutaneous disease, these areas may demonstrate only erythema rather than well-developed poikiloderma . The erythema may be macular (nonpalpable) or papular. In rare patients, these lesions become thickened and resemble papular mucinosis. The cutaneous eruption of DM is often associated with significant pruritus, which may assist in distinguishing its photo-exacerbated eruption from that of lupus erythematosus (LE).

●Holster sign – Patients with DM may also have poikiloderma on the lateral aspects of the thighs, referred to as the "Holster sign" . It is unclear why this cutaneous manifestation occurs on this classically photo-protected site.

●Generalized erythroderma – In rare patients, erythroderma may occur, which involves extensive cutaneous surface area, including areas that are less exposed to ultraviolet light.

●Periungual abnormalities – The capillary nail beds in DM may be erythematous and may show vascular changes similar to those observed in other systemic rheumatic diseases (eg, scleroderma and SLE). Abnormal capillary nail bed loops may be evident, with alternating areas of dilatation and dropout and with periungual erythema . In addition, cuticular overgrowth, sometimes termed "ragged cuticles," is characteristic and may be associated with hemorrhagic infarcts within the hypertrophic area . The degree of cuticular involvement is thought to reflect ongoing cutaneous disease activity, representing active vasculopathy .

●Psoriasiform changes in scalp – Changes in the scalp resembling seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis occur in a high percentage of patients with DM . The scalp involvement in DM is diffuse, often associated with poikilodermatous changes and with prominent scaling. Scalp involvement may result in severe burning, pruritus, and/or sleep disturbance. In addition, severe pruritus may occur in patients without visible disease.

●Calcinosis cutis – The deposition of calcium within the skin, a finding known as calcinosis cutis, occurs commonly in juvenile DM. It is infrequent in adult DM. In children, calcinosis has been associated with a delay in treatment with glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressive therapy. Calcinosis cutis, which is known to be very challenging to treat, may be seen in a variety of conditions, including SSc, particularly limited cutaneous SSc; SLE (rarely); and overlap connective tissue disorders. It may be more common in patients with DM with the anti-p140/anti-MJ autoantibody

Bhopalwala. H

Monday, February 18, 2019

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Discoid lupus erythematosus — It is estimated that 15 to 30 percent of patients with SLE develop DLE . Patients with localized or generalized DLE are estimated to have cross-sectional prevalences of concurrent SLE between 5 and 28 percent.

The presence of DLE lesions among patients with SLE may modify the risk of specific SLE features. Compared with SLE patients without DLE, those with DLE have increased risk for photosensitivity and leukopenia but decreased risk for serositis and arthritis. There is no obvious change in risk of nephritis despite variable reports of a "renal-protective effect" of the presence of discoid lesions among SLE patients.

Data on the risk for progression of DLE to SLE are limited to retrospective cohort studies, studies lacking power to detect statistical significance of potential markers of progression, and studies that do not address DLE specifically as a CLE subset. In these studies, progression to SLE has occurred in 0 to 28 percent of patients initially presenting with DLE . Progression to SLE often is delayed; in a Swedish-based population cohort study, 10 percent of patients with DLE who subsequently developed SLE did so within the first year and 17 percent developed SLE within the first three years . Two retrospective studies have suggested SLE develops within five years in 50 percent of the DLE patients who indeed go on to develop SLE . Risk factors for progression include an increasing number of clinical and serologic features of SLE: more widespread DLE lesions, arthralgias and arthritis, high antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers, leukopenia, and high erythrocyte sedimentation rates .

It is worth noting that patients with DLE and other mucocutaneous manifestations of LE may meet ACR classification criteria for SLE without having other end-organ disease . Revised classification criteria (the SLICC criteria) have been proposed to address some limitations of the ACR criteria.

●Clinical manifestations – The classic findings of DLE are discrete, erythematous, somewhat indurated plaques covered by a well-formed adherent scale that extends into dilated hair follicles (follicular plugging). The plaques tend to expand slowly with active inflammation at the periphery and then heal, leaving depressed central scars, atrophy, telangiectasias, and hyperpigmentation and/or hypopigmentation . DLE most often involves the face, neck, and scalp but may also occur on the ears (particularly conchal bowls) and, less frequently, on the upper torso . Localized DLE is limited to sites above the neck. Generalized DLE refers to DLE occurring both above and below the neck.

Hypertrophic DLE is an uncommon clinical variant of DLE characterized by the development of hyperkeratotic, verrucous plaques

Fun Fact : SEAL, the famous singer suffers from DLE.

Bhopalwala. H

Saturday, February 16, 2019

Guttate Psoriasis

The papules and plaques of guttate psoriasis are usually less than 1 cm in diameter (giving rise to the name guttate, which means drop-like). The trunk and proximal extremities are the primary sites of involvement.

Guttate psoriasis typically occurs as an acute eruption in a child or young adult with no previous history of psoriasis. Less commonly, a guttate psoriatic flare occurs in a patient with preexisting psoriasis. There is a strong association between recent infection (usually streptococcal pharyngitis) and guttate psoriasis

Bhopalwala. H

Pustular Psoriasis

Pustular psoriasis — Pustular psoriasis is a form of psoriasis that can have life-threatening complications. The most severe variant (the von Zumbusch type of generalized pustular psoriasis) presents with the acute onset of widespread erythema, scaling, and sheets of superficial pustules . This form of psoriasis can be associated with malaise, fever, diarrhea, leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Renal, hepatic, or respiratory abnormalities and sepsis are potential complications.

Reported causes of pustular psoriasis include pregnancy (impetigo herpetiformis), infection, and the withdrawal of oral glucocorticoids. The term impetigo herpetiformis has been used to refer to pustular psoriasis of pregnancy.

Bhopalwala. H

Inverse Psoriasis

Inverse psoriasis — "Inverse psoriasis" refers to a presentation involving the intertriginous areas, including the inguinal, perineal, genital, intergluteal, axillary, or inframammary regions . This presentation is called "inverse" since it is the reverse of the typical presentation on extensor surfaces. This variant can easily be misdiagnosed as a fungal or bacterial infection since there is frequently no visible scaling.

Bhopalwala. H

Sunday, December 30, 2018

Hair tansplant or follicular transplant

Hello Awesomites!

This is going to be fun. :D

Q. A male diagnosed with AGA (Androgenetic alopecia) came to me with grade 3 alopecia. Asking me that he is frustrated from taking medication and heard of hair transplant surgery. What advice would you give him?

A.I have seen lot of misconception regarding this concept. Hair transplant doesn't mean actual hair. We take follicle from occiput. Why? Because it is not responsive to androgen as there is no Androgen receptor.

Hair transplant is for already bald area. Androgen receptor blockade is given for remaining vellus hair. So that means hair transplantation surgery is not substitute for minoxidil/finasteride. For grade 3 AGA alopecia patient can undergo hair transplantation for bald area but have to take medication for remaining vellus hairs.
This is for AGA alopecia. Scarring alopecia won't show good response with hair transplantation surgery as much as AGA alopecia,

Q. AGA is genetic alopecia. So why don't it appear at birth itself?
A. At birth, androgen receptor is present but insensitive. When genetic component become active, the receptor become sensitive and balding occur.

Have a great day ahead.
Upasana Y. :)

Sunday, November 25, 2018

Pemphigus vulgaris vs Paraneoplastic Pemphigus vulgaris (PNP)

Hello friends, today let's talk about subtle differences between pemphigus Vulgaris and Paraneoplastic Pemphigus Vulgaris

Pemphigus Vulgaris usually involves buccal and labial mucosa.
PNP causes severe stomatitis as well as targetoid lesions on palms and soles much like erythema multiforme.

In Pemphigus Vulgaris antibodies are directed against intercellular adhesion molecules desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3.
However, in PNP apart from desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3 antibodies are also directed against envoplakin, plectin, desmoplakin, periplakin, and BPAG-1. 

In Pemphigus Vulgaris typical chicken-wire pattern is seen due to the intercellular deposition of IgG and C3
In PNP, that is not the case as although there is IgG deposition in all layers but not intercellularly and furthermore C3 is deposited along basement membrane as in Bullous pemphigoid.

In Pemphigus Vulgaris it is rare while in PNP often mucosa of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestines, and the pulmonary epithelium is seen.

Prognosis is quite poor in PNP with bronchiolitis obliterans and sepsis being chief complications.
Mostly seen in Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma and CLL.

- Kirtan Patolia

Thursday, November 22, 2018

True or False #9

1.Atopic dermatitis presents on flexor surfaces in infants. T or F



Extensor surfaces

Flexor in older children and adults

How to remember this?

Infants slEEEEEEEp a lot right.

Hence EEEEEEEExtensor surface involved in infants in atopic dermatitis

That will help you remember the opposite ( flexor surfaces) involved in older children and adults

That's all.

Friday, June 8, 2018

MCQ Mnemonic Series: Apple jelly nodules


Apple jelly nodules on nasal septum are seen in :

A) Leprosy

B) Syphilis

C) Lupus vulgaris

D) Wegner’s granulomatosis


LLuPPus vulgaris
aPPLLe jelly nodules
{Luppal ~ Apple)

Dr. Shubham Patidar

Monday, March 26, 2018

Hutchinson in Medicine

Here's a summary of the important Hutchinson's in medicine!

1. Hutchinson Teeth 
Seen in -  Congenital Syphilis
Feature -  Peg shaped Incisors , Widely spaced and smaller teeth.
Associations - Mulberry Molars : Multi-cusped Molars.

2. Hutchinson Sign of the Nail
Seen in -  Subungual Melanoma
Feature -  Melano-nychia ( Black colored nail) , feature of a melanoma below the nail plate.

3. Pseudo Hutchinson Sign of the Nail
Seen in -  Melanocytic be of nail bed
Feature -  Melano-nychia like appearance.

4. Hutchinson sign
Seen in -  Varicella Zoster infection
Feature -  Vesicle at the tip of the nose - indicative of Zoster infection. May precede Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

5. Hutchinson Triad
Seen in -  Congenital Syphilis
Feature -  Hutchinson teeth + Interstitial keratitis + Sensorineural Hearing loss.

6. Hutchinson Patch
Seen in -  Syphilitic Keratitis
Feature -  Salmon patch on the cornea

7. Hutchinson Mask
Seen in -  Tabes Dorsalis, Neurosyphilis
Feature -  Mask like sensation over the face due to involvement of trigeminal.

8. Hutchinson  Pupil
Seen in -  Raised Intracranial tension especially due to a mass.
Feature -  Pupil dilated and unreactive to light due to 3rd cranial nerve compression.

Those are all the Hutchinson I can think of !
Let me know if you got any more.
Happy Studying!
Stay Awesome !