Showing posts with label Pulmonology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pulmonology. Show all posts

Thursday, October 14, 2021

Types of pulmonary hypertension mnemonic

Here are my notes and a video on types of pulmonary hypertension - WHO classification! It comes with a mnemonic :)

Wednesday, May 12, 2021

Kartagener syndrome mnemonic


Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dysfunction, aka immotile cilia syndrome) mnemonic :-

Tuesday, May 11, 2021

ARDS management mnemonic

 Maintenance “DOSE”

Dry Lungs - “Dry lungs -Happy lungs”

  • Maintain negative fluid balance to reduce pulmonary edema

Open but not Over-distended 

Monday, April 19, 2021

Trail's Sign

Shift of trachea produces prominence of sternal head of sternocleidomastoid on the side to which the trachea is shifted. It is called Trail's sign.

The pretracheal fascia encloses the clavicular head of stemomastoids muscle on both sides. When the trachea is shifted to one side, the pretracheal fascia covering the stemomastoid muscle on that side relaxes, producing the clavicular head more prominent on the side of tracheal deviation.

Saturday, December 5, 2020

Mechanical ventilation

Terms you need to know

1.       PaO2: Oxygen saturation in arterial blood  (N = 80-100)

2.       PaCO2: Carbon Dioxide saturation in arterial blood (N = 35 – 45)

3.       FiO2: Fraction of inhaled O2 (N = 21% i.e. the fraction of O2 in atmosphere air which we inhale)

4.       PEEP: Positive End Expiratory Pressure – The pressure needed at the end of expiration to keep the alveoli open.

5.       RR: Respiratory rate (N = 12-16)

6.       TV: Tidal Volume (N = 6-8 ml/kg = approx. 500 ml)

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Chest pain in acute pericarditis vs myocardial infarction


Acute myocardial infarction is one of the miscellaneous causes of acute pericarditis. Differentiating features of chest pain in these two cases are many, but the high-yield points to be noted are:-

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Clinical pearl : TNF-alpha therapy


In case of granulomatous diseases, macrophages activated by Th1 cells lead to increased levels of TNF-alpha. Now, TNF-alpha induces and maintains granuloma formation. Basic, right?

So we give anti-TNF drugs (adalimumab, infliximab, etc.). However, they cause the granuloma to break down, thus leading to disseminated disease.

Bottom line - Always remember to check for the presence of latent TB before starting anti-TNF therapy.

That's all
- Jaskunwar Singh

Thursday, April 9, 2020

COVID-19: Lymphopenia and pneumonia

Hello everyone!

In the context of COVID-19, we will talk about two specific terms: Lymphopenia and Pneumonia.

COVID-19 Pneumonia
We mention "pneumonia" when there is an acute inflammation of the lungs following an infection. Pneumonia is one of the common features in infected patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This pneumonia has various clinical and radiological characteristics depending on the stage of the disease. It evolves rapidly, even in asymptomatic patients from local unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-grass opacities which progress within 1-3 weeks to consolidation or co-exists with. A retrospective study at Wuhan describes radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The predominant pattern of abnormality observed was bilateral (79%), peripheral (54%), ill-defined (81%) and ground-glass opacification (65%), mainly involving the right lower lobes. [1]

Friday, January 17, 2020

Facebook: PFT-1

Q1) Which of the following is/are not a contraindications of performing PFT(Pulmonary function test)? 

A) MI within one year

B) Unstable angina

C) Recent thoraco-abdominal surgery

D) Recent ophthalmic surgery

E) Past history of pneumothorax

So correct options are - A and E

Following are contraindications to perform pulmonary function test. 

Mnemonic: UR IRcTC

U- Unstable angina

R- Recent thoracoabdominal surgery

I- Myocardial infarction within the last month

R- Recent ophthalmic surgery

T- Thoracic or abdominal surgery 

C- Current pneumothorax

That's it! 

-Demotional bloke. 

Friday, December 27, 2019

Indications of long‐term oxygen therapy


I was discussing the indications of long‐term oxygen therapy with a friend today...

Long‐term continuous oxygen therapy, ideally for ≥18 h/day is indicated when:

1. Daytime partial arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2) is ≤ 55 mm Hg at rest or a pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) less than or equal to 88 percent.

2. Daytime PaO2 is 56–59 mm Hg and there is evidence for hypoxic organ damage (right heart failure, pulmonary hypertension or polycythaemia)

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Benign vs Malignant pulmonary calcifications mnemonic

A nice mnemonic to differentiate benign and malignant pulmonary calcifications is:

Malignant calcifications are ***SuPER bad*** :P
S: Spiculated
P: Punctate
E: Eccentric
R: Reticular

I use those 3 starts (***) to remind me of punctate.(vs the other P of Popcorn in the benign lesions)

Bening ones are the rest:
Popcorn, laminated, concentric and diffuse homogeneous


NB: these calcification types suggest benign vs malignant lesions and are not diagnostic per se.

Check the other amazing mnemonic by Drashtant in the comments section below  :)

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Pharmacologic treatment of pulmonary hypertension (notes and mnemonics)


Vasodilator response: A favorable vasodilator response is defined as a fall in mPAP of 10 mm Hg or greater to less than 40 mm Hg with an unchanged or improved cardiac output, in response to an agent such as inhaled NO or IV epoprostenol.

Acute type-II respiratory failure causes mnemonic


Causes of Acute type-II Respiratory failure mnemonic:

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Radiologic features seen in pulmonary emphysema mnemonic


Radiologic features seen in a case of pulmonary emphysema (Chest X-ray PA view):
mnemonic: PSTR-ANTR