Thursday, April 18, 2019

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR T cells) therapy simplified

Hey everyone! Upasana - our funny medical student made a simplified video on CAR T cell therapy. Check it out!



I copy-pasted a quick short post in text for reference :)

Monday, April 15, 2019

Orthopaedics: Facebook Septic arthritis Vs Transient synovitis

#Medicowesome
#Orthopaedics

Q) A 4 year old kid comes to OPD with complaints of high grade fever, decreased appetite and pain in right hip. On examination he has dehydration/ tenderness in Scarpa's traingle/ swelling in right hip region, flexion, abduction and external rotation at hip/ absent movements in right hip region. On Xray there is mild increase in medial joint space. Diagnosis is

1) Septic arthritis
2) Transient synovitis
3) Tubercular arthritis
4) Dislocation of hip

Answer is 1) Septic arthritis

Let us dissect this Multiple choice question. Read the question one more time and let's follow up. Put your Sherlock holmes hat and let's see what we can deduce!

1) A 4 year old kid.
2) Toxic due to dehydration.
3) In his right hip we have - Flexion, abduction, and external rotation. This collectively is called as FABER! Big clue here.
4) Absent movements

Looking at the option given, we can definitely eliminate dislocation of hip. It has FADIR - Flexion, Adduction and internal rotation.
Coming to TB. Now if try to recollect the 5 stages of TB you will find that 1st stage is FABER and next two stages are FADIR! 5th stage is Fibrous ankylosia known as TB arthritis. 4th stage has Wandering Acetabulum (It is a misnomer because both acetabulum and femur head is destroyed so actually remaining part of femur wanders! - also known as - Pestle and Mortar type)

Now two options left - Transient synovitis and Septic arthritis. Well you know Septic arthritis is an emergency condition. Even if you don't know any thing about other option, you can still get it correct. Child is toxic and absent movements points out toward emergency condition.

Both Transient synovitis and septic arthritis causes FABER which leads to more space in the joint leading to more inflammation and swelling. Any swelling disease in Orthopedics is approached as
"XMAS"
X- Xray
M-MRI
A-Arthroscopy which is USG guided.
S-(for)Swelling diseases

Wait! What would be treatment modalitis for both of them?
Ofcourse surgery followed by 6 weeks of Antibiotics for Septic arthritis
Whereas Transient synovitis as name suggest is less severe so we do conservative treatment.

Remember:
Septic arthritis - Absent movements
Transient synovitis - Decrease movements

Saturday, April 13, 2019

What Is Going On In Migraine?

Despite the high prevalence of migraines, the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood.

What was thought?
Cerebral and meningeal arteries dilatation. Now largely disproven.

What do we think?
- MRI says episodic cerebral edema with dilatation of intracereberal vessels and less water diffusion that doesn’t respect vascular territories.

- PET says it’s a subcortical disorder affecting modulation of sensory processing.

- Magneto-EncepaloGraphic (MEG) scan suggests failure of inhibitory circuitry in the visual cortex.

- Hormones play a role. Migraines occur just as commonly in males as in pre-pubertal and post-menopausal females but the ratio tilts towards women of reproductive age group by 3:1. About half of the women complain of migraine synchrony with menses.

- 5-HT overload as suggested by its metabolites in the urine. While the exact significance is controversial, the efficacy of Triptans (5-HT 1b/1d agonists) supports its role.

- Trigeminal nerve dysfunction suggested by blockade of trigeminal nerve impulses by Triptans. They also inhibit release of substance P and pro-inflammatory neuropeptides.

This is what we know so far. To thread this string is your responsibility, future Dr. Neurologist. Good luck!



- Ashish Singh

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Hierarchy Of Evidence

Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious and judicious use of current, best research evidence to optimise management plans.
Here’s the order of importance.


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That’d be all.


- Ashish Singh











Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Unique iris behavior in bleeding

Iridodialysis bleeds profusely as the circulus major arteriosus lies near it's root.
Conversely, sphincterotomies or YAG iridotomies hardly bleed. Why? Because the vessels in the iris away from it's root are intertwined within it's musculature. The muscles contract immediately, halting any hemorrhage.


Monday, April 8, 2019

Burnout Advice.... Jay's 2 cents s/p reading Ikan's post

Burnout is a very common thing among us medicos. That spans from being a medical student upto a resident or even a consultant sometimes!

We feel stupid most of the times and some of our seniors have that bad habit of making the juniors feel bad.

But trust me, you WILL become as good as them, and even better! Medical field needs experience and alot of reading. Med school teaches us maybe 1/10th of what we should know as a doctor. And the remaining we learn on the job.

There is always more to learn more to read and more to understand but medicine is not a lonely game. Always refer, and ask! In Medicine, 2 brains are always better than 1 brain. Don't feel shy or bad to ask for help.

Use your head! If they belittle you, tell yourself you will learn it. Smile and move on.

For me each time I lose motivation, I watch an episode of a Medical TV series. It could be HouseMD, The Resident, New Amsterdam, Good Doctor, Chicago Meds, or any random episode I find in Youtube.
Watching them gives me the feeling of impact I can have in others' lives.

I also go through Youtube videos from famous Medical youtubers, few of my favorites are Jane and Jady, TheStriveToFit, Ali Abdal, DoctAura etc. They have amazing study tips and other medical related things that can give you the motivation to read and learn.

Sometimes I go through #Studygram handle in Instagram. There are many colourful notebooks and workspaces, it really inspires me and gives me a free mind to study.

I also like to read the study tips written by my fellow authors. They have eye opening and motivational tips that really makes me go sit and get that one chapter done.

If all these don't work, just listen to your favorite songs and move your body a little bit when your room mates are not watching! 😂 It definitely gives some positivity to shrug off that sad burnout feels.

Yes! I find most of my inspiration and motivation by online activities rather than going out and resting under the trees. One reason being Im not a very outgoing person and another being I have very little time as a Junior Intern.

And also it helps to clean your room. And cooking a meal for you and/or your family/partner. It would leave you with a clutter free environment and a tasty meal to eat. And if things go well, a lot of praising for your yummy food by others with make your self esteem get better too.

Then get a yummy dessert or make one. Sometimes I just eat a slice of custard cake on my way home, or cook a simple bread pudding and share with my roomies. Although they jump into finish it
and finally leaving me a little piece. ( Those two a-holes!!! 😂😂)

You don't need a trip to beach or hike to mountain, but sometimes sleep on a cozy bed with newly washed sheets, after a warm bath, applying your favorite night lotion, a drop of nice smelling essential oil behind your ears and wearing relaxing clothes will refresh you too.

These are few of my techniques to feel good after a toxic day with disastrous rounds.

Confession : I have had my fair share of bad days. I was punished for silly mistakes. I was sanctioned with extension of duty and forced to work extra hours to compensate for it. But we gotta accept our short comings, learn from our mistakes and move on. We at Medicowesome are not saints or gods to dictate how you should live and everyone of us had made errors, said wrong things in rounds, got shouted at, failed exams, and some of us even went through psychiatric help to get over any of the depressive periods we had

But what is most important is, NONE of us gave up! I take this time to thank my Medicowesome family for helping each other and even helping me rise up in such times when I was so low. Behind the groups and the blog, we are an amazing group of friends although many of us have never met each other. Medicowesome is my support group, and we all need one including you. Find your supportive group, and for the records don't forget we at Medicowesome as also on your back, ready to hold you up.

Stay strong and comment or message us about your methods of tackling a toxic day or a burn out session. So we all can learn from it.

Keep it up! Take care and always....be awesome!

With love,
-Jay

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Residency and burn out advice

Here's a conversation I had with a friend of mine. She's a resident in a busy government hospital in Mumbai.

I still feel like Jon Snow (I know nothing). I feel like I'm stuck at the basics. And seniors expect a lot. It is somehow unfathomable to me that someday I will be even one tenth as smart as them. Morning rounds as a massacre. It's like beheading my already non existent self confidence. I feel so stupid everyday. I have no energy to study.

I'm trying so hard to not let it get to me but everyday I get to hear criticisms either from professors or immediate seniors. I wasn't born stupid Nakeya but everyday I feel like I've bitten off more than I can chew and chosen a career that's too difficult for me. I feel thoroughly demotivated these days. Like I'm just working because I have to. I feel like I've lost interest only to improve and be better everyday.

Me:
It's OKAY to feel stupid. I think it's everyone of us. It's a part of learning. Indian culture has not developed a way to give constructive feedback... So you got to modify the words they say and take it in a way that motivates and inspires you. It's... I'm pretty sure it's just the culture that makes you feel more stupid than you should feel. The career is not difficult. The training is. You're not stupid. The way they teach is!

We do this thing every week - We share our humanistic experiences with everyone. It could be as simple as holding grocery bags for an old lady.  It really helps. We tend to think about the things we did wrong and belittle ourselves. But we need to think about the good things we did. The things we did right. Made a baby smile when they were sick. Made a correct medical decision. Got the IV in the first go. We need to celebrate the little things.

Take time off from medicine and rest whenever you get a chance.

-IkaN

Wednesday, April 3, 2019

Asking Questions

History taking in medicine is science just as much as art. Here are some tips.

DOs

Open questions: ‘How are you?’ ‘How does it feel?’
The direction a patient chooses offers valuable information.
‘Tell me about the vomit’
‘It was dark’
‘How dark?’
‘Dark bits in it’
‘Like...?’
‘Like bits of soil in it’
This information is gold although it does not cast in the form of coffee grounds.

Patient-centred questions: Patients may have their own ideas about their symptoms, how they impact and what should be done. This is ever truer as patients frequently consult Dr. Google before their physicians. Unless their ideas, concerns and expectations are dealt with, your patient may never be fully satisfied with you or be fully involved in their own care.

Considering the whole: Humans are not self sufficient units; we are complex relational beings, constantly reacting to events, environment and each other. To understand your patient’s concerns, you must understand their context: family, friends, work, dreams and fears. A headache caused by anxiety is best treated not with analgesics; but by helping the patient access support.

Silence and echoes: Often the most valuable details are the most difficult to verbalise.
Trade secret: the best diagnosticians in medicine are not internists, but patients. If only the doctor would sit down, shut up and listen, the patient will eventually tell him the diagnosis.
While powerful, silence should not be oppressive- try echoing the last words said to help your patient vocalise a particular thought better.

DON’Ts

Closed questions: Permit no assumptions. Take no subtle information for granted. Let the patient paint you a picture.

Questions suggesting an answer: The doctor’s expectation and hurry to get the evidence into a pre-decided format have tarnished the patient’s story enough to render it useless.

- Ashish Singh

Pathophysiology: Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hello guys, here’s a whiteboard summary of how DKA happens.


[Please click on the image to enhance it]

- DKA is a medical emergency. It’s a complication of type 2 diabetes.
- DKA has a triad of hyperglycemia, ketosis [metabolic acidosis] and dehydration.
- Main ketone bodies are beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Acetone is only a minor ketoacid.
- Lactic acidosis also contributes to metabolic acidosis.
- More glucose in blood leads to more glucose filtered into urine causing osmotic diuresis.


- Ashish Singh 

Friday, March 29, 2019

Burkitt’s Lymphoma types

There are three types of Burkitt’s Lymphoma: Endemic (African), Sporadic  (non-endemic) and immunodeficiency-associated.

Molecular mayhem - AML relapse after HSCT

Hello,

For many hematological disorders including AML, CLL, ALL HSCT is the only viable therapeutic option when cytogenetics are not conducive for chemotherapeutic agents. However subsequent relapses are not uncommon which are due to subtle molecular alterations because of underlying and acquired mutations.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

WhiteBoard Summary: Lichen Planus

Hi guys, let’s talk dermatology.

Lichen Planus is a papulosquamous disease that affects skin, nails and mucous membrane, caused by cell-mediated immunity of unknown aetiology. Here’s a (not-so-white) whiteboard summary.

[Please click on the image to enhance it]


- Morphological variants can be hypertrophic, atrophic, erosive, follicular, annular, vesicular, bullous, actinic or pemphigoid.
- Lichenoid reaction can be caused by drugs (thiazides, antimalarials, penicillamine, gold) and even in Graft vs. Host disease.
- Those with steroid resistance/ intolerance are treated by hydroxyquine, methotrexate or sulfasalazine.
- Psoralens can also be used along with UV-A radiation.
- Patient education regarding self-limiting and recurrent nature of the disease is important.


- Ashish Singh

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Pathophysiology: Multiple Sclerosis

Hey guys, let’s look at the fundamentals of multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the CNS characterised by
- chronic inflammation
- demyelination
- reactive gliosis/ scarring
- neuronal loss
with a course that is relapsing-remitting or progressive
and lesions that are disseminated in time and space.

Here’s how it happens:

[Please click on the image to enhance it]


- Ashish Singh

Antibiotics: Action and Resistance

A series of fortunate events - including a cancelled holiday and an unpredictable British summer - in 1928 began the antibiotic revolution, when Alexander Flemming’s observation that a contaminating Penicillium colony caused lysis of Staphylococci.

Here’s a pictorial summary of various sites of action of modern-day antibiotics.

[Please click on the image to enhance it]


However, the capacity for prokaryotic bugs to develop resistance far outweighs the human capacity to develop new antiobiotic drugs.
Antibiotic resistance can be:
- Intrinsic: Inherent structural or functional characteristics, eg: vancomycin cannot cross the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria.
- Extrinsic: Acquired through years of mutation and/or transfer of resistance properties. This evolutionary phenomenon is accelerated by selection pressure from antibiotic use, eg: beta lactamase producing Gram positive bacteria.



- Ashish Singh

WHO Pain Ladder

Humans are the most exquisite devices ever made for experiencing pain; the richer our inner lives, the greater the varieties of pain there are for us to feel.
As physicians, never forget how painful pain is, nor how fear magnifies pain. Try not to let these sensations, so often interposed between your patient and recovery, be invisible to you as he/ she bravely puts up with them.

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ALWAYS GO UP THE PAIN LADDER, IF PAIN PERSISTS/ INCREASES.
- Simple analgesics are non-narcotic.
- Review and chart each pain carefully and individually.
- Identify and treat underlying pathology, wherever possible.
Adjuvants:
1. Neuropathic pain: Gabapentin, Pregabalin, Amitriptyline, Duloxetine, Steroids
2. Bone cancer pain (primary or mets): Radiotherapy, Bisphosphonates
3. Intestinal/ Renal colic: Hyoscine butylbromide
4. Muscle spasm: Baclofen
5. Brief pain relief: Nitrous oxide (usually with oxygen)


- Ashish Singh

Friday, March 22, 2019

Mnemonic: Incubation Period of Hepatitis

Hey guys, here’s a simple little mnemonic to remember the incubation period of various hepatitis infections.

Rule of 4 to 8:

Hep A - 4 weeks
Hep E - 5 to 6 weeks
Hep C - 7 weeks
Hep B/D - 8 to 12 weeks

Pay attention to the order of Hep infections from 4 to 8.

Why A&E first? That’s because they enter through the mouth (feco-oral mode of transmission) and your mouth is the first part of your GI.
Remember Hep D co-infects or super-infects Hep B.

- Ashish Singh

Thursday, March 21, 2019

A-a Gradient

A-a gradient =[PAO2 - PaO2]
where:

A-a gradient = difference between alveolar PO2 and arterial PO2

PAO2 = alveolar PO2 (calculated from the alveolar gas equation)

PaO2 = arterial PO2 (measured in arterial blood)

PAO2 =150 - PaCo2/0.8


Normal range for A-a gradient is

10-15 mm Hg


ALL causes of hypoxemia lead to ↑ A-a gradient, EXCEPT:

Hypoventilation, high altitude, upper airway obstruction (e.g. epiglottitis from Haemophilus influenzae, or croup from parainfluenza virus)

Everything else will cause ↑ A-a gradient (e.g. shunt, V/Q mismatch, etc.).  

It's much better to remember the exceptions, then everything else becomes the rule!


Also to adjust for age, the thumb rule to calculate A-a gradient is :

Age /4   plus 4


A-a gradient >30 is considered elevated regardless of age.


Bhopalwala. H

Catheter Removal Timing

Removal — Following diagnosis of catheter-related infection, catheter removal is warranted in the following circumstances :

●Severe sepsis

●Hemodynamic instability

●Endocarditis or evidence of metastatic infection

●Erythema or exudate due to suppurative thrombophlebitis

●Persistent bacteremia after 72 hours of antimicrobial therapy to which the organism is susceptible

Source :Uptodate

Bhopalwala. H

Lung Biopsy in VAP

Lung biopsy in Ventilator-associated Pneumonia may be reserved for patients in whom infiltrates are progressive despite antibiotic therapy or patients in whom a non-infectious etiology is suspected.

The purpose of acquiring tissue under these circumstances is to identify a pathogen that may have been missed with previous sampling or a pathogen that is difficult to culture (eg, fungus, herpes viruses) or to identify a noninfectious process masquerading as infection (eg, cancer, cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis, lymphangitis, interstitial pneumonitis, vasculitis).

Source: Uptodate

Bhopalwala. H

Just when you lose hope....

(This is a bit of an off-academic post. So if you are on exam season, avoid reading this.)

Being a doctor!..... we all have dreamt of it. Since we were kids we wanted to wear that stethoscope, walk in long hall ways, go to those people with pain and help them...

You wil watch a TV series and when a surgeon would say "Scalpel please!" you feel goosebumps thinking one day you wanna do it...

But there are somedays you just get home or to hostel from medschool or hospital, and you just don't want to do it anymore. You feel like your passion is lost. You feel like you are no more yourself!

YES! We all have gone through this at least once or even more times in our lives. And when you say this, many other medical students will relate to you too.

Whenever you feel so demotivated, just think WHY YOU STARTED THIS AT THE FIRST PLACE? Did you do it by your will? What made you decide this?

For an example, I always wanted to be a doctor, but my will to become a doctor became so strong when my grandpa passed away in a govt hospital because the doctor in charge didn't diagnose that he was having a heart attack. That day I decided I want to be that doctor who will correctly diagnose and treat people to the best capability I can. I wanted to stop anyone else's family member to pass away because of gross incapacity of a doctor.

You may also have a reason like this if you dig inside your mind. And you will find this reason to fire you up again. To make you push through that one more chapter. Go to that one more ward with a wide smile despite you are sleepless and tired.

Find your reason to stay, not to leave! Because once you are on this voyage, you have decided to work for the betterment of the world and the people, and if you quit midway, it's such a waste, my friend!

Many people dream to be in our shoes. If we give it up, we just are ruining a chance of someone else to be a doctor. So make that medschool seat you owned, be worth it.

Another thing! Going through medschool is not a single man's job. It needs hell load of a support. Find this support system in your family, in your significant other, in your friends, and anyone who would give you strength to carry on, and someone who would motivate you, someone who would be there to say "You can do this! I'm with you!".

Medical books are boring, but books are not the only way you can learn anymore in this digital world. You have millions of videos and interactive websites you can find. You have blogs like our www.medicowesome.com where we breakdown big medical info into small pieces and clarify.

Get your stuff together, clean up your workspace. Cleaner table will motivate you to study too. Use some motivating words in front of your workspace, On your phone's wall paper, On your notebooks! Simply everywhere you would see. If someone would judge you for that, make them your motivation too. Stick up a motivating note on their forehead too! 😂 Just kidding! Ya just keep that smile on always!

Life is great! Medical life is even greater! With all its failures, late night cries, exam phobhias, senior bullies, colleague dramas, its all worth it.

Finish your degree...! This pain lasts only few years! Once you are a fully fledged doctor, you can go ahead and be that wonderful human being you always wanted to be! Don't kill that wonderful person even before you get there!!

We are all voyagers of this same hard journey wherever we are in this world! So let's do this! And in any case you need someone to guide you through your academic related depression or demotivation, always count on us here in Medicowesome!

Have a great day and go own that damn degree!!! 😍

Good luck! See ya later!

Yours,

Jay.

About me by Srikar Sama

Hello there awesomites!

I am a new author here. I am really excited to be here!!! Let me introduce myself


I am Dr. Srikar Sama currently doing internship from Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, India. I'm currently preparing for step1 and hope to match into IM/Radiology soon :)

Talking about my hobbies,I love Sci-Fi and fantasy movies (Huge fan of MCU too :P).
I'm obsessed with Game of Thrones, Breaking bad and House MD💙. 
I love dogs, especially Samoyed😍.
I like to travel, meet new people and want to taste local cuisine in all the cities I visit :P
I also love anime(Death Note is my all time fav!!!!), Playing video games and cricket :)

Thanks IkaN for giving me this opportunity! I love making new mnemonics and writing articles for this blog!! I hope you'll enjoy reading my articles.
That'll be all for now. Good luck awesomites.Love Y'all. Live long and prosper✌

-Srikar Sama.