Showing posts with label USMLE Step 3 CCS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label USMLE Step 3 CCS. Show all posts

Sunday, February 28, 2021

Essential tremor - a mnemonic.

Do you often forget the features of 'essential tremor'? Well shake no more, 'coz here's a mnemonic that will straighten things up for ya!

Thursday, October 22, 2020

USMLE Step 3 experience (247 score)

Ø  Score: 247
Ø  Preparation time: 1.5 months
Ø  Main Resources: Step 3 UW + UW CCS Cases +
Ø  Supplemental Resources: Step 1 First Aid + Crush CCS pdf + USMLE Primum software + Random overview of few Step 2 CK notes

Monday, March 11, 2019

Norepinephrine in ICU

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Levophed

8 to 12 mcg/minute (0.1 to 0.15 mcg/kg/minute)

A lower initial dose of 5 mcg/minute may be used, eg, in older adults 2 to 4 mcg/minute (0.025 to 0.05 mcg/kg/minute) 35 to 100 mcg/minute (0.5 to 0.75 mcg/kg/minute; up to 3.3 mcg/kg/minute has been needed rarely)

Initial vasopressor of choice in septic, cardiogenic, and hypovolemic shock.
Wide range of doses utilized clinically.

Must be diluted; eg, a usual concentration is 4 mg in 250 mL of D5W or NS (16 micrograms/mL).

Bhopalwala. H

Milrinone in ICU

Inotrope (nonadrenergic, PDE3 inhibitor)

Milrinone Primacor

Optional loading dose: 50 mcg/kg over 10 minutes (usually not given) 0.125 to 0.75 mcg/kg/minute

Alternative for short-term cardiac output augmentation to maintain organ perfusion in cardiogenic shock refractory to other agents.

Increases cardiac contractility and modestly increases heart rate at high doses; may cause peripheral vasodilation, hypotension, and/or ventricular arrhythmia.

Renally cleared; dose adjustment in renal impairment needed.

Must be diluted; eg, a usual concentration is 40 mg in 200 mL D5W (200 micrograms/mL); use of a commercially available pre-diluted solution is preferred.

Bhopalwala. H

Dobutamine in ICU

Dobutamine Dobutrex

0.5 to 1 mcg/kg/minute

(alternatively, 2.5 mcg/kg/minute in more severe cardiac decompensation) 2 to 20 mcg/kg/minute
20 to 40 mcg/kg/minute;

Doses >20 mcg/kg/minute are not recommended in heart failure and should be reserved for salvage therapy

Initial agent of choice in cardiogenic shock with low cardiac output and maintained blood pressure.
Add-on to norepinephrine for cardiac output augmentation in septic shock with myocardial dysfunction (eg, in elevated left ventricular filling pressures and adequate MAP) or ongoing hypoperfusion despite adequate intravascular volume and use of vasopressor agents.

Increases cardiac contractility and rate; may cause hypotension and tachyarrhythmias.
Must be diluted; a usual concentration is 250 mg in 500 mL D5W or NS (0.5 mg/mL); use of a commercially available pre-diluted solution is preferred.

Bhopalwala. H

Vasopressin in ICU

Vasopressin (arginine-vasopressin) Pitressin, Vasostrict

0.03 units per minute (alternatively 0.01 to 0.03 units/minute initially) 0.03 to 0.04 units per minute (not titrated)
0.04 to 0.07 units/minute;

Doses >0.04 units/minute can cause cardiac ischemia and should be reserved for salvage therapy

Add-on to norepinephrine to raise blood pressure to target MAP or decrease norepinephrine requirement. Not recommended as a replacement for a first-line vasopressor.
Pure vasoconstrictor; may decrease stroke volume and cardiac output in myocardial dysfunction or precipitate ischemia in coronary artery disease.

Must be diluted; eg, a usual concentration is 25 units in 250 mL D5W or NS (0.1 units/mL)

Bhopalwala. H

Monday, February 18, 2019

Labs in SLE

Laboratory testing — We obtain the following routine laboratory tests, which may provide diagnostically useful information:

●Complete blood count and differential may reveal leukopenia, mild anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia

●Elevated serum creatinine may be suggestive of renal dysfunction

●Urinalysis with urine sediment may reveal hematuria, pyuria, proteinuria, and/or cellular casts

In addition to the routine laboratories described above, we perform the following laboratory tests which support the diagnosis of SLE if abnormal:


●Antiphospholipid antibodies (lupus anticoagulant [LA], IgG and IgM anticardiolipin [aCL] antibodies; and IgG and IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein [GP] I)

●C3 and C4 or CH50 complement levels

●Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels

●Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio

The ANA test is positive in virtually all patients with SLE at some time in the course of their disease . If the ANA is positive, one should test for other specific antibodies such as dsDNA, anti-Sm, Ro/SSA, La/SSB, and U1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP). In some labs, a positive ANA test by indirect immunofluorescence will automatically result in testing for such additional antinuclear antibodies that are often present in patients SLE.

●Anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE, but anti-Sm antibodies lack sensitivity . Anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies are seen in approximately 70 and 30 percent of patients with SLE, respectively.

●Anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies are present in approximately 30 and 20 percent of patients with SLE, respectively; however, both antibodies are more commonly associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

●Anti-U1 RNP antibodies are observed in approximately 25 percent of patients with SLE, but they also occur in patients with other conditions and high levels are almost always present in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD).

●Antiribosomal P protein antibodies have a high specificity for SLE, but have low sensitivity for SLE. They also lack specificity for involvement of a particular organ system or disease manifestation.

If the initial ANA test is negative, but the clinical suspicion of SLE is high, then additional antibody testing may still be appropriate. This is partly related to the differences in the sensitivity and specificity among the methods used to detect ANA. A more detailed discussion on the techniques used to detect ANA is presented separately.

Fun fact : Anti-Sm antibody was actually named after a patient with Lupus, Mr. Smith.

Bhopalwala. H

Secukinumab (Cosentyx)

Use :

Ankylosing spondylitis: Treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis in adults.

Plaque psoriasis: Treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adults who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.

Psoriatic arthritis: Treatment of active psoriatic arthritis in adults.

Mechanism of Action :

Secukinumab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the interleukin-17A (IL-17A) cytokine and inhibits its interaction with the IL-17 receptor. IL-17A is a naturally occurring cytokine involved in normal inflammatory and immune responses. Secukinumab inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

Never treat a test, test the patient always #Dr. G

Bhopalwala. H

Friday, January 4, 2019

USMLE Step 3 CCS sheet guide

Hey guys,

So I recently took my USMLE Step 3 and I gathered some of this from various resources. I think this may be of some help to the beginners.

Let's get started!

In relevant emergency cases (order the ones that are relevant):

Pulse oximetry
Intravenous line and fluids (Please remember to type NSS/Normal Saline or Dextrose, etc. CCS software won't take orders that are less than 3 characters!)
Cardiac monitor
Sugar (fingerstick)

For chest pain add MONA:
Then order relevant Physical Exam (In Office cases, you'd want to order most physical exams and in the Emergency Department cases, you'd want to order more symptom-based system specific exam)
Laboratory orders: CBC LFT ICU PAX
Complete Blood Count (CBC), ESR
Basic Metabolic Profile (BMP)
Cardiac enzymes (if not ordered earlier)

Liver Function Tests (LFT) or Lipid profile

Imaging (CT/MRI/USG/etc) Iron profile Immunologic tests (HIV/HepB/HepC/Rubella/etc)
Cultures (Blood/urine/fluid/etc)
Urine (routine, microscopy, culture & sensitivity)

Pregnancy test (urine) & Pap test (if female) PT/INR PTT d-Dimer PFT
Amylase ABG
You can now forward the time to get some results or decide whether the location needs to be changed
Comfort: if the patient is in pain- give NSAIDs/Morphine based on the situation; vomiting- antiemetic; etc
Cure: if you suspect a particular infection-give antibiotic; if it's an MI- angiography v/s other management options; etc
Consult: you may want to order a Psych or Surgery or OBGYN or any other relevant consult based on the case
If the patient needs to get admitted on floors or ICU:  ADIC

Activity: Bed rest/ ambulation
Input/output charting
Compression stockings
If the patient is scheduled to undergo a procedure: ABC PIN
Blood grouping and crossmatching

When you get your 2-minute screen: Counsel and order follow-up labs!
You may want to counsel them on their diagnosis, lifestyle habits, medication adherence/ compliance/ side effects and so on.

Hope this helps!

Stay awesome :)

Monday, February 5, 2018

USMLE Step 3 - My two cents by Dr. B

USMLE step 3 - My two cents!

My name is Dr. B and I have recently finished my Step 3 - results aren’t out yet, but I hope I can stay as just the author of this article and not have to read it once more. Fingers crossed!!

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Step 3 CCS tips & Frequently Asked Questions

This post is all about how to study for CCS.

How to study for CCS?
Use the UW software. It is more than enough.

Should I do Archer videos?
They are just 5 videos and are not mandatory to do. It's just that most students do not know how to fast forward the clock, change location, etc. and Archer does a pretty good job at explaining it. (I might do a video later!)

Should I opt for softwares other than UW?
It is not necessary because UW has just enough. Other softwares might train you to do "extra" unnecessary orders which maybe sub-optimal in the real exam because there is not enough time to do everything.

MUST DO before the real exam: Practice the CCS cases on the website. You have to be comfortable with the software and the different orders available.

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Thursday, December 7, 2017

USMLE Step 3 CCS: Rape


These are my CCS steps for a case of rape. Lemme know if I missed out on anything!

Rape evidence kit

Complete physical examination

Vaginal fluid analysis
Vaginal, cervical, rectal cultures
Urine culture
HIV test, P24 antigen
Gonococcal tests
Chlamydial tests

Emergency contraception (ulipristal / levonogestrol)
Tenofovoir + emtricitabine + raltegravir
HBIG (if unvaccinated)

Psych consult
Drug screen
Colposcopy (for injuries)

That's all!

USMLE Step 3 CCS: Kawasaki disease

Hello, these are my hypothetical orders for KD.
Let me know if I missed something out!

Physical examination (PE)

Blood culture (to rule out infection)
Urinanlysis (to rule out infection)
Urine culture (to rule out infection)
CXR (to rule out infection)

Strep pharyngitis culture


That's all!

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

USMLE Step 3 CCS: Asthma exacerbation

Orders to remember!

Pulse oximetery (every 1-2 hours to access response)
Physical examination
Albuterol nebulizer
Intravenous methylprednisone
Peak flow (every 1-2 hours to access response)
EKG (is this cardiac?)
CXR (to find out cause of asthma excerbation - infection)
CBC (to find out cause of asthma excerbation - infection)

Other stuff:
Cardiac monitor
Head elevation
Ipratropium for severe exacerbations
NSS 0.9%
Discharge on oral prednisone for 5-7 days

- Use inhaled short-acting beta agonists early and frequently, and consider concomitant use of ipratropium for severe exacerbations
- Start systemic glucocorticoids if there is not an immediate and marked response to the inhaled short-acting beta agonists
- Make frequent (every one to two hours) objective assessments of the response to therapy until definite, sustained improvement is documented


Tuesday, October 10, 2017

USMLE Step 3: CCS Inflammatory bowel disease checklist

These are just my notes / checklist from the UW case 3. This post will not make sense to you if you are not preparing for CCS.