Showing posts with label renal. Show all posts
Showing posts with label renal. Show all posts

Sunday, October 22, 2023

Morphology of Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

The morphology of crescentic glomerulonephritis seen in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is quite easy, so here i am just sharing the difference between differences in the types of RPGN only:

Points of difference

Immune complex mediated

Anti GBM antibody mediated

Pauci immune type

Endocapillary proliferation




Mesangial proliferation






Linear staining




Granular staining




Dense immune complex deposits




I hope it will help you in remembering the morphology 

In Sha Allah

see you soon with something new again IA

Thank you 😊

Thursday, October 19, 2023

Mnemonic | Morphology of IgA nephropathy

 Morphology of IgA nephropathy will be derived from its pathogenesis and the disease name.

so the mnemonic is presented here:

Pathogenesis = indicates about role of immunoglobulins and mesangial cells

now about these 2 things take the name of the disease:

IgA = A = All 

= all main antibodies in infections (IgA, IgG, IgM) 

= all mainly possible mesangial morphologies ranging from mesangial widening, diffuse mesangial proliferation endocapillary proliferation, segmental sclerosis, , to crescentic glomerulonephritis  

(remember it by keeping in mind the structure of glomerulus in which from center to periphery comes mycangium, capillaries and then epithelium of glomerulus)

I hope it works for you all again 👽

In Sha Allah!

Thank you 💓

Wednesday, October 18, 2023

Mnemonic | Morphology of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

Here again I am back with another mnemonic to remember the morphology of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis 

Pathology is fun 😭😂

I hope the feelings are obvious to everyone now lol 😁

this mnemonic will be mainly derived from the name of the disease:

Membrano proliferative Glomerulonephritis:

  • if I abbreviate this disease to MG (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis), than i can make you remebr that MG is a car manufacturing company so its cars would make a tram track appearance on roads when they are driven

and then comes the breakdown of the disease name:

  • Membrano = meaning something wrong is with basement membrane of glomerular capillaries

tram track appearance 

  • Proliferative  = meaning something is proliferating 

so endothelium, mesangium is proliferating (ME from membrano)

  • Glomerulonephritis = inflammation indicates infiltration of leukocytes as it is a nephritic syndrome mainly

specific types of Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis have these all above said features but certain differences which are mentioned in this table below:


Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type 1


Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type 2

(C3 glomerulopathy)

Dense deposit disease

C3 deposits


Deposited in irregular pattern

(subendothelial ONLY)



Waxy deposits

(mesangial, subendothelial and tubular BM)


Ribbon like highly dense deposits

(mesangial, subendothelial and tubular BM)

Classic complement system components







I hope this was fun also for you like always!

I hope it works you again

In Sha Allah!

Thank you 💓

feel free to ask any study related question in the comment section👽

Tuesday, October 17, 2023

Mnemonic | Morphology of Membranous Nephropathy |

Morphologies are always very difficult, atleast for me and my colleagues 😥

so I have made a mnemonic for the membranous nephropathy morphology:
I will try to keep it simple and make the name of the disease a major hint for the morphology:

4 things will get evident from the name of the disease:

1.  Word membranous indicates towards basement membrane of capillaries of glomerulus, and what can happen to it in inflammation or disease?
mostly thickening of basement membrane of capillaries

2.  M stands for Mehrab (the place where Muslim religious leader of stands to lead the prayer) - picture is shown below

took this image from alamy website (and these pictures are downloadable from there without any consent)

so the leader stands in it and it appears like dome if seen from outside = dome and spike pattern 

3.   next comes the dome again,  as I described the dome appearance from outside of this mehrab so if I imagine that dome being the outside of capillaries which will blink in mind the point of 
sub epithelial deposits 
(as epithelium is on the outside of capillaries in glomerulus)
4.  remaining morphology is same as in other nephrotic syndromes (effacement of podocytes, etc.)

I know it has got long but to remember morphologies and then forgetting is worst than understanding this mnemonic and keeping the memory long enough atleast till final exam. lol 😂

I hope it works again for you like my other mnemonics
In Sha Allah!
Thank you 💓

Saturday, October 14, 2023

Mnemonic for Morphology of Focal Segmental Glomerulonephritis

 Morphology of Focal segmental glomerulonephritis is derived mostly from its name and its pathophysiology.

so here it is:😍

1st word = Focal = only some glomeruli are involved (mainly juxtamedullary)

but it can extent later to whole of cortex as well

2nd word = segmental = only a portion of glomerulus is involved

but later may extend to whole of glomerulus which may extend into interstitium and ultimately tubular atrophy can occur

3rd word = glomerulosclerosis = scarring/fibrosis of glomerulus

scarring hints scarring obviously (fibrosis I mean)

and scarring links to capillary lumen obliteration of glomerulus 

(imagine a situation when glomerulus will be sclerosed, it will get contracted and so capillary lumen will also start collapsing) - now link obliteration of capillary lumen with increased mesangial matrix

for this see the diagram of glomerulus and understand that mesangial growth can also compress upon the capillary lumen and cause lumen obliteration


link the morphology with pathophysiology if you are reading pathophysiology of FSGS from Robbins pathology then it has said that some people think that FSGS is a derivative of minimal change disease and the hall mark of minimal change disease is 

EFFACEMENT OF PODOCYTES - SO this morphology is also here

and this effacement means leakage of plasma contents seen in minimal change disease that is proteins and lipids so here we see 



In Sha Allah!

Monday, October 9, 2023

Mnemonic for causitive agents of Acute Postinfectious glomerulonephritis

How to remember that which organisms can be the cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis?

Sometimes it gets very problematic, not because that is important to know, but because sometimes you just want to remember everything  from ROBINS PATHOLOGY. lol
so here it is:


Post infectious glomerulonephritis is also called post streptococcal glomerulonephritis and it is a quite obvious things. From this we have:
the name itself indicates Streptococcus
P indicates Pneumococcus and ST for Staphylococcus 


From the name of post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the first thing that comes to mind is some relation with children because when we studied these topics in our immunology chapters than glomerulonephritis and post infectious endocarditis were written next to each other. so children picture is now clear in our little brains, now what children do most of the time? CRY! lol And how:

MM AHu ahu....................................................aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa lol and mother says CHHHHH tos top him from crying (or may even slap - a vicous cycle may begin or terminate. you can relate yourself. lol - sorry for your nostalgia!)

M = mumps
M = measles
A = aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa (thats nothing. lol)
CHHH = chickenpox

and that's it! 
I hope it works for you 
In Sha Allah !
Thank you 💓