Whats the role of ACE inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy?
I was asked this question in viva..
》ACE Inhibitors retard the progression of Diabetic Nephropathy.
Here is the mechanism-
Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) gets activated in Diabetes (both type 1 and 2). So there is increased production of Angiotensin and its products, which leads to various vascular and metabolic changes.
Angiotensin-II induces several fibrogenic chemokines, viz.
Monocyte Chemo attractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and Transforming Growth Factor- beta (TGF-B)
AT-II activates transcription factors
Nuclear factor-KB and thus synthesis of MCP-1 in renal cells. MCP-1 has a role in monocyte immigration which transmigrates through vascular endothelium and gets differentiated to macrophages. This leads to increased Extracellular Matrix production and Tubulo Interstitial Fibrosis.
Slow acting drugs like Lisinopril, Enalapril, Ramipril are employed for 12 months therapy in Diabetic Nephropathy. Assessment of proteinuria, creatinine clearance, uMCP-1 is done before and after this period.
A decrease in protein content in urine, increase in creatinine clearance, and a massive decrease in urinary MCP-1 levels are seen.
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers also retard the renal damage in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
- JasKunwar Singh