Good morning! =)
I was studying about radiolucent kidney stones and thought of sharing what I learnt with you all.
Mnemonic for radiolucent renal calculi: CATIX URL
Another mnemonic for medication stones: GUEST MIC
Guaifenesin stones (Radiolucent)
Ephedrine stones (Radiolucent)
Sulphonamides stones (Radiolucent)
Triamterene stones (Poorly radiopaque)
Magnesium trisilicate stones (Poorly radiopaque)
Indinavir stones (Radiolucent)
Cephalosporins stones (Radiolucent)
If you are asked to choose the radiolucent one between Orotic acid stones and cysteine stones, choose orotic acid. It is radiolucent, cystine is poorly radioopaque.
Magnesium ammonia phosphate (struvite) and Cystine calculi are less radiodense and are more difficult to visualize. Uric acid, orotic acid, xanthine, triamterene, dihydroxyadenine, and indinavir calculi are radiolucent and might not be seen on a plain radiograph.
Predisposing factors for uric acid stones:
1. Low urinary pH
2. High uric acid excretion
Treatment for uric acid stones:
1. Alkalinization of urine
(Sodium bicarbonate, potassium citrate)
2. Increase fruits, veggies. Decrease animal flesh.
3. XOI - Allopurinol, Febuxostat
Alkalinization of urine mnemonic: ABC.
Alkalinization. Bicarbonate. Citrate.
(Sodium bicarbonate and potassium citrate are used for alkalinization of urine)