This is a counterpart of Monteggia fracture- dislocation.
It also has two components: Fracture of distal- third of Radius and dislocation of the distal radio- ulnar joint. Mnemonicise it from here.
The mechanism of injury is the same as in Monteggia fracture and dislocation (fall on an outstretched arm causes an axial load on a hyperpronated forearm; Hyperpronation injury). The more distal the fracture, greater are the problems encountered in wrist and hand movements and more are the deforming forces that cause muscular and soft- tissue injuries.
A must to mention here is about Anterior Interosseous nerve (AIN) palsy and Wrist drop.
A patient with Galeazzi fracture and dislocation may present with the AIN palsy (while PIN is common in case of Monteggia fracture and dislocation) that may cause paralysis of flexor policis longus and flexor digitorum profundus thus resulting in a loss of pinch mechanism between thumb and index finger.
Wrist drop may also be a presenting complaint that results from an injury to the radial nerve and also due to weakness of brachioradialis and extension of wrist and thumb. The patient cannot bear the weight of the hand.
Diagnosis:- X- rays of forearm (AP and lateral view)
Treatment:- Complete reduction and fixation is important to restore the functions of limb. Galeazzi fracture and dislocation is best treated with Open Reduction and Internal fixation (ORIF). In children, closed reduction is the procedure of choice due to skeletal immaturity.