Monday, August 21, 2017

Medicollabowesome: ENT Manifestations of HIV Infection

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ENT MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV INFECTION

Three types of lesions are seen:

  1.  Opportunistic infections- viral, bacterial, protozoal, mycobacteria
  2.  Unusual malignancies- kaposi sarcoma involving skin, mucous membrane, neck, extremities; and lymphoma both Non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma
  3. Neurological disorders- AIDS dementia complex, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cranial nerve 7th(often), 5th and 8th involvement
Otological manifestations-

  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Seborrhoeic dermatitis of external canal
  • Malignant otitis media
  • Serous otitis media
  • Acute otitis media
  • Psuedomonas and candida infection of external and middle ear
  • MTB
  • Sensorineural hearing loss- due to viral of auditory nerve or cochlea and demyelination of CNS
  • Ramsay-Hunt syndrome
  • Facial paralysis
Nasal and PNS manifestations-

  • Herpetic lesions of nose
  • Recurrent sinusitis
  • Chronic sinus infection
  • Fungal sinusitis
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Lymphoma
  • Burkitt's lymphoma
Oral cavity and oropharynx manifestations-

  • Candidal infestion- thrush, painful swallowing when oesophagus involved
  • Herpetic lesions of palate, buccal mucosa, lips, gums- forms ulcer
  • Giant aphthous ulcers
  • Adenotonsillar hypertrophy
  • Generalised lymphadenopathy
  • Kaposi sarcoma of palate
  • NHL of tonsil and tongue
  • Hairy leucoplakia 
  • Gingivitis
Larynx manifestations-

  • Laryngitis
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • NHL

Besides these, there is involvement of,
Salivary gland- 

  • Parotitis
  • Xerostomia
  • Diffuse parotid enlargement
  • Lymphoepithelial cysts of parotid
  • Kaposi sracoma
  • NHL
Neck- Lymphadenopathy due to TB, Histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, NHL or HL.



Shivani Mangalgi
Medicowesome 2017

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