Wednesday, March 4, 2015

Study group discussion: Aortic regurgitation

What are the characteristic physical findings in aortic regurgitation?

You mean the characteristics signs from head to toe?

No, some special findings are present.

Collapsing pulse.

Yes, the water hammer pulse!

It was my viva question. I was asked to demonstrate it!

What else?

Like signs? Like pulsations at nail bed!

Yeah what's that called?

Pulsations at nail bed?

Quinckes sign!

Yes, exactly Quincke.

Hills sign.

The hills sign is the most significant.

What is hill sign?

Low BP in the upper limbs.

Upper limb bp is higher than lower limb.. Or vice versa.

Yup..right.. Cuz there's a difference of >10mmhg in upper and lower limbs..

And obviously, wide pulse pressure.

Plus, there is this austin flint murmur characteristic of severe AR.

Mullers sign - Pulsations of the uvula

Corrigans sign - Carotid pulsation visible

Landlof's sign

Oh landolf's sign is alternate dilatation and constriction of pupil with each heart beat.

I know Mussetts - the head bobbing

Traubes, I think, is shotty femoral pulse!

Lighthouse sign!

Lighthouse sign is blanching and flushing of forehead with each heart beat..

Duroziez - murmur over femoral artery

Locomotor brachii.

What's that?

Oh yes.. Locomotor brachii is the Thickened, tortuous brachial artery on Inspection.. You can see the twitchings clearly especially on the medial side of arm.. It basically indicates hypertension but commonly associated with AR.. I've seen it in patient with AR..

Which is the most diagnostic sign? Which is the most important of all the signs of aortic regurgitation?

The diastolic murmur is diagnostic of all!

Even mitral stenosis has a diastolic murmur! It should be Hills!

In MS, we also have the opening snap.. You need practice to be quick in identifying the psa and opening snap. Where as hills can be diagnosed with a BP cuff!

And there is difference in the sounds too.

Theoretically, we read that.. Frankly, I find it a great achievement if I can only say with confidence whether it's diastolic or a systolic murmur.


Haha that's the truth actually!!

Aortic regurgitation -Soft blowing early diastolic decrescendo murmur.
Heard best at the left 2nd ICS without radiation.
May also hear systolic flow murmur and diastolic rumble (Austin Flint)

Mitral stenosis -Low frequency rumbling mid-diastolic murmur, with presystolic component possible.
Heard best at apex.
Accentuated in left lateral decubitus position.

What's the amount of blood regurgitated in aortic regurgitation?

Its 25% of ejection fraction

In mild AR?


What about moderate and severe types?

Maybe increases, I have to check.

It does. But since you were specific to say 25% There has to be specific values of the other two classes as well.

In severe, its more than 50%  I think, correct me if I'm wrong.

Will check out my books.

I had an aortic regurgitation case in my finals too.
I thought I was reading the blood pressure wrong but... The diastolic was 20mm Hg.
It can go so low.. The diastolic can even go till zero is what my professor said!


  1. Why u not create more doodles for every discussion? ^_^ I am sure it will make these sessions more fun and colorful ^_^ We miss those doodles!!!!

    (Good job on these info-filled discussion by the way, worth the read for reviews :)

    1. I'm so busy these days. Thanks for letting me know, I'll try making them more often (:


This is express yourself space. Where you type create something beautiful! <3
Wondering what do I write? Well...
Tell us something you know better. You are a brilliant mind. Yes, you are! ^__^
Ask about something you don't understand @_@?
Compliment... Say something nice! =D
Be a good critic and correct us if something went wrong :|
Go ahead. Comment all you like here! (:

PS: We have moderated comments to reduce spam. ALL comments that are not spam will be published on the website.