Friday, November 11, 2016

Step 2 CK: CLL notes and staging mnemonic


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is proliferation of normal B lymphocytes that function abnormally.

The WBC count in CLL is > 20,000/flL with 80-98% lymphocytes.

Smudge cells are seen in CLL.

Staging of CLL mnemonic

High  LSAT score :D

Stage 0: High WBC
Stage 1: Lymphadenopathy
Stage 2: Splenomegaly + Hepatomegaly
Stage 3: Anemia
Stage 4: Thrombocytopenia

For stage 0 and stage 1, no treatment is required.

Therapy is indicated for patients with advanced stage disease, high tumor burden, severe disease-related "B" symptoms, or repeated infections.

Hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia are preferably treated with fludarabine and rituximab (FR).

For refractory cases, cyclophosphamide can be used (FCR regimen)

Older individuals (> 65 years of age) can be treated with ibrutinib, a bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor (preferred) or chlorambucil plus anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

Autoimmune hemolysis or thrombocytopenia is treated with prednisone (Autoimmune warm IgG antibodies)

CLL has a good prognosis compared to other leukemias. Most common cause of death is due to infection.

That's all!

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