Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Immunohemolytic anemias part-1

Hello awesomites!
This is my very first post, so am starting with my favorite subject Hematology.
Today's post is about Immunohemolytic anemias, commonly ignored type of anemia

Also referred as Autoimmune hemolytic anemias(AIHA)
Where antibodies are responsible for premature destruction of red blood cell.
Types- warm antibody type
            - cold agglutinin type
            - cold hemolysin type

Warm antibody type  -  It is the most common type of AIHA.
you can remember it by mnemonic
W - Warm because, antibodies are active  
       at 37°C
A -  Associated with other Autoimmune        
       disorders ( secondary causes like 
R - Red cell hemolysis is mainly
M- Moderate spleenomegaly due to
       hyperplasia of splenic phagocytes      

G- Ig G class - most common causative
      antibodies ( IgA sometimes too)

R- Rh blood group antigens are the main
I- 50% primary cases are  Idiopathic
       Secondary causes can be

L- Lymphoid neoplasm

ED-  Exposure to Drugs.
Examples - penicillin, cephalosporins, quinidine, methyl dopa etc

Mechanism - A) Antigenic drugs-
Drugs such as penicillin binds to red cell membrane and they are recognized by the antidrug antibody. The antibody either recognizes the drug and bind to it or both drug and membrane protein,ultimately results in hemolysis.

B) Tolerance breaking drugs- In drugs such as methyl dopa, antibodies are formed against red cell antigens particularly Rh antigens.

Stay awesome✌️

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