Monday, May 22, 2017

High ankle and low ankle sprain mnemonic


High ankle and low ankle sprain
There are two types of ankle sprain:

High ankle sprain  (syndesmosis injury)
The high ankle ligaments are located above the ankle.
1-10% of all ankle sprains.
Mechanism: External rotational injury.
Physical exam: Syndesmosis tenderness

Low ankle sprain (ATFL and CFL injury)
The low ankle ligaments are located below the ankle.
>90% of all ankle sprains.
Mechanism: Inversion injury.

Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL):
Most commonly involved ligament in low ankle sprains.
(Mnemonic: ATFL Tears First in Low ankle sprains)
Mechanism: Plantar flexion and inversion
Mnemonic: PAT - Plantar flexion, ATFL
Physical exam: Drawer laxity in plantar flexion

Calcaneofibular ligament (CFL):
2nd most common ligament injury in lateral ankle sprains.
Mechanism: Dorsiflexion and inversion
Mnemonic: CD - CFL, Dorsiflexion
Physical exam: Drawer laxity in dorsiflexion

PTFL: Less commonly involved

That's all!
This illustration will be in First Aid 2018 edition, I am working on it! :)

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