Sunday, March 1, 2020

Acquired coagulopathy

Apart from congenital disorders, various clinical scenarios can give rise to altered hemostatic patterns leading to the state of so-called "acquired coagulopathy".

1.) Due to Factor inhibitors:
Classically it is seen in pregnant patients and those with lymphoproliferative disorders like CLL. However, it could be idiopathic.
Usually, it leads to the acquired factor Vlll and V deficiency.
Mixing studies are employed to differentiate between acquired and congenital factor deficiency. Failure of correction of clotting assays after mixing studies suggests the presence of inhibitors.

2.) Amyloidosis
Sequestration of Factor X by amyloid fibrils leads to an acquired deficiency-like state. Amyloid vasculopathy along with factor X deficiency often leads to purpura and ecchymosis in these patients.

3.) Myeloproliferative neoplasms
Apart from acquired vWD due to loss of HMW vWF multimers, acquired factor V deficiency can also be seen. This has been attributed to adherence of Factor V to megakaryoblasts similar to the relation between factor X and amyloid fibrils. However, severe clinical manifestations might not necessarily reflect upon clotting assays or factor levels with the latter suggesting functional factor V deficiency.

3.) Thrombotic microangiopathies and DIC
Usually leads to both thrombotic and bleeding manifestations. The spectrum of TMA includes HUS, aHUS, TTP, HELLP syndrome, DIC, cAPLA, scleroderma renal crisis, malignant hypertension, and radiation or HSCT-induced vasculopathy.

4.) Coagulopathy of liver failure
Classically seen in the setting of fulminant liver injury which may be due to the infections, drugs, autoimmune hepatitis, ischemic hepatitis/shock liver, or rarely in Wilson's disease due to massive hepatocyte destruction.
One of the hallmark lab findings includes normal factor VIII levels. This is due to the fact that factor VIII, unlike other factors, is chiefly produced by endothelial cells rather than by hepatocytes. In fact, due to its reduced metabolism by hepatocytes in the state of liver failure, factor VIIl levels are often elevated.

Other miscellaneous causes include Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, fat embolism syndrome, amniotic fluid embolism, and other pregnancy-associated complications.

- Kirtan Patolia

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