Sunday, April 11, 2021

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)

 CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)

OUTSIDE HOSPITAL CPR

PRE- CPR PROCEDURE:

  1. First, check the scene for factors that could put you in danger, such as traffic, fire, or falling masonry.

  2. Next, check the person. Tap their shoulder and shout, "Are you OK?”. If they are not responding, call for help and call 108. If available, ask a near-by person to bring AED machine.




Remove any obstruction (food or vomitus) seen, only if it is loose. 

(If it is not loose, trying to grasp it may push it farther into the airway.)

  • Check for breathing and feel for pulse (Brachial artery in infant, Carotid or femoral in a child and Carotid in adults) within 10 seconds:



  1. No breathing, or occasional gasps + No pulse           Begin CPR

  2. No breathing or occasional gasps + Pulse felt         Give 10-12 breaths/ minute

  1. Unconscious but still breathing, do not perform CPR. Instead, place them in:



Keep monitoring the patient. Start CPR if the person stops breathing.


CPR

  1. Perform chest compressions at the rate of 100-120/ min:


  1. Open airway using triple maneuver: 



  1. Give rescue breaths:

Pinch the nose while giving a breath mouth-to-mouth and look for chest rise.

If their chest does not rise with the first breath, tilt their head.

If their chest still does not rise with a second breath, the person might be choking. 


  1. Try to synchronize the breaths with any voluntary breathing activity of the patient that might be present.


  1. Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until the person starts breathing or help arrives. If an AED arrives, carry on performing CPR until the machine is set up and ready to use. 



FOR CHILDREN (STEPS AS ABOVE WITH FOLLOWING MODIFICATIONS)

For children, give compressions using one hand only, between the nipples and press down around 2 inches.

For infants, give compressions using both the thumbs or index and middle fingers and press down approximately 1.5 inches.

If two rescuers present, try give 15 compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths and so on.





INSIDE HOSPITAL CPR

  1. Recognize cardiac arrest and activate emergency team.

  2. Start CPR as above (except that now, the person administering CPR should stand by the side of patient). 

  3. Instead of using mouth-to-mouth for rescue breaths (may not feasible in case of infectious diseases), bag and mask ventilation is done and the patient is ventilated with a compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2


For Bag and mask ventilation, tilt the head of patient backwards.

Then, form a tight seal with the mask around the nose and mouth of patient forming letters E by fingers and thumb of one hand and C by the other.

Squeeze the AMBU bag and look for chest rise.


  1. Airway may be secured by following methods while making sure that this process doesn’t compromise on the chest compressions.

  • Combitube

  • Laryngeal Mask Airway

  • Endo-tracheal intubation (See document titled ‘ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION’)


Once advanced airway is secured give 1 breath every 6 seconds.




ADULT ALGORITH FOR MANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC ARREST


In brief:

  • Shockable rhythm - ALWAYS Shock 

  • Non- shockable rhythm – CPR with epinephrine (keeping approximately 4-minute interval between 2 epinephrine injections)

  • Shock ­čí¬ CPR gain i.v. access + Inject Epinephrine ­čí¬Shock ­čí¬ CPR + Inject Amiodarone ­čí¬ Shock ­čí¬ CPR + Epinephrine ­čí¬ and so on...

  • Time between 2 assessments/ 2 shocks/ time for which CPR is performed while injecting drugs = 2 mins



DEFIBRILLATION


For pediatric patients:

1st shock: 2-4 J/kg 

Subsequent 4J/kg (but not more than 10 J)


For adults:

Biphasic defibrillators: 100-120 J 

Monophasic defibrillators: 360 J


Placement of leads:




EPINEPHRINE:

1 mg 1:10000 i.v./ i.o. every 3-5 mins 


AMIODARONE:

1st Dose: 300 mg bolus dilute in 20-30 ml

2nd Dose: 150 mg bolus



VIDEO LINK:

ADVANCED CARDIAC LIFE SUPPORT (ACLS) ADULTS:

(2) ACLS Megacode - YouTube


Written by our guest authors - Hemant Kadam, Jignesh Bhadarka, Anveshi Nayan 

Illustrations by Anveshi Nayan and Devi Bavishi

#Ae(ONE)INTERN

 

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