Sunday, October 4, 2015

Major And Minor Blood Cross Matching Compatibility Tests

Hello awesomites! Jay ™ here today, once again with a new blog post. Yayy! ^_^

Today we will discuss about Major and minor blood cross match compatibility test. This is usually performed before the transfusion of blood from a donor to a recipient in a hospital setting.
Before we get to this we need to get known to a table which we will use in the following tests.

Blood Type
Agglutinogen (Antigen)
Agglutinin (Antibody)
A
A
Anti b
B
B
Anti a
AB
A + B
None
O
None
Anti A + Anti B

In major compatibility test we mix Donor Cells (Dc) with Recipient Serum(Rs).
In minor compatibility test, we mix Recipient Cells (Rc) with Donor Serum (Ds)
For the Cells we check the Column of Agglutinogen and for Serum we check the Column of Agglutinin for obvious reasons of the place of presence of each.

So for an Example – 

Let’s assume 

1. Donor(D) = O and Recipient (R) = AB

Major Compatibility
Dc (O) + Rs(AB)    à None + None = No Major Incompatibility
Minor Compatibility
Rc(AB) + Ds(O)    à (A + B) + (Anti A + Anti B) = Minor Incompatibility  Present

2. D = AB   R= B

Major Compatibility
Dc (AB) + Rs(B)    à (A +B) + Anti a = Major Incompatibility Present
Minor Compatibility
Rc(B) + Ds(AB)    à (B) + (None) = NO Minor Incompatibility


3. D = A    R =B

Major Compatibility
Dc (A) + Rs(B)    à (A) + Anti a = Major Incompatibility Present
Minor Compatibility
Rc(B) + Ds(A)    à (B) + (Anti b) = Minor Incompatibility Present
TOTAL INCOMPATIBILITY Present

4. D = A   R = A

Major Compatibility
Dc (A) + Rs(A)    à (A) + Anti b = NO Major Incompatibility
Minor Compatibility
Rc(A) + Ds(A)    à (A) + (Anti b) = NO Minor Incompatibility
NO INCOMPATIBILITY Present

5. D = B    R = AB

Major Compatibility
Dc (B) + Rs(AB)    à (B) + NONE = No Major Incompatibility
Minor Compatibility
Rc(AB)+ Ds(B)    à (A+B) + (Anti a) = Minor Incompatibility Present

Transfusions are contraindicated In TOTAL INCOMPATIBILITY and MAJOR INCOMPATIBILITY. But in an emergency, even if there is MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY the transfusions can happen, provided that any reaction will be taken cared later. Preferably, washed or packed red cells from the donor should be administered. In reality, dilution of the transfusion in the recipient usually eliminates any likelihood of antibodies from the donor affecting the recipient's red cells. Anyhow, the BEST way is NO INCOMPATIBILITY sequence.

Ok guys, I think you understood, what I tried to say in here. If you have any doubt, or you see any error in my blog post, please mention it in the comments below, and I will get it corrected. Thanks a lot for reading! See you soon! :D

References

 My lecture notes :P ^_^
1          Fundamentals of Physiology : A Textbook for Nursing Students – R L Bijani
2     Textbook of Medical Laboratory Technology – Ramnik Sood




2 comments:

  1. Here's the burning immunohematology question: If people with AO or AA blood naturally produce anti-B without prior exposure, and if people with BO or BB blood type naturally produce anti-B without prior exposure, why isn't the AB blood type a fatal genetic combination? What stops the A gene from producing anti-B, and vice-versa, killing the developing embryo almost immediately?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You don't produce these antibodies naturally, you produce them after exposure to antigens in the environment (mostly food).

      Delete

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