Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Hematuria: A clinical pearl

Hey Awesomites

Hematuria (blood in urine) may be microscopic or macroscopic/ gross.

The American Urological Association (AUA) defines microscopic hematuria as 3 red blood cells/ high - power field on microscopic examination of the centrifuged urine specimen in two of the three freshly voided, clean- catch, midstream urine samples.

Gross/ visible hematuria can result from as little as 1mL of blood in 1L of urine, and therefore, the color of urine does not necessarily reflect the degree of blood loss.

Now lets have a brief review of the clinical presentation of hematuria on the basis of its source -

- A glomerular source of bleeding (nephronal/ glomerular hematuria) usually results in persistent microscopic hematuria that may be with/ without intermittent periods of gross hematuria.

- Total hematuria (present throughout the void) indicates bleeding of bladder/ upper tract origin.

- If renal sources of hematuria are present, the blood is equally dispersed throughout the urine stream  and does not clot.

In cases of clotting, its localisation is a must to evaluate the underlying cause:

- Hematuria/ clots at the beginning of the urine stream ( initial hematuria ) is a symptom of a urethral cause.

Terminal hematuria occurring at the end of stream may be caused due to either prostatic, bladder, or trigonal source of bleeding.


Thats all
- Jaskunwar Singh

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