Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Pathophysiology of laboratory findings in tumor lysis syndrome

Which of the following electrolysi abnormalities will you see in tumor lysis syndrome?
Answer either high, normal or low for each of these - calcium, phosphate, potassium, uric acid.

Answers:
Labs in tumor lysis syndrome -
Hypocalcemia 
Hyperuricemia
Hyperphosphatemia
Hyperkalemia

Why?

When cancer cells lyse, they release potassium, phosphorus, and nucleic acids, which are metabolized into hypoxanthine, then xanthine, and finally uric acid. 

This leads to:

Hyperkalemia can cause serious — and occasionally fatal — dysrhythmias.

Hyperphosphatemia can cause secondary hypocalcemia, leading to neuromuscular irritability (tetany), dysrhythmia, and seizure, and can also precipitate as calcium phosphate crystals in various organs (e.g., the kidneys, where these crystals can cause acute kidney injury).

Uric acid can induce acute kidney injury not only by intrarenal crystallization but also by crystal-independent mechanisms, such as renal vaso-constriction, impaired autoregulation, decreased renal blood flow, oxidation, and inflammation.

Crystal-induced tissue injury occurs in the tumor lysis syndrome when calcium phosphate, uric acid, and xanthine precipitate in renal tubules and cause inflammation and obstruction.

That's all!

-IkaN

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