Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Types of abortion mnemonic


I'll start off the post with a mnemonic and then go on explaining what these terms mean...

In short: What is threatened abortion, missed abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, compete abortion?

Threatened abortion
USG: Viable pregnancy
Cervical os: Closed 

Missed abortion
USG: Non viable pregnancy
Cervical os: Closed

Complete abortion
USG: No POC left
Cervical os: Closed

Mnemonic: MTCC - Missed, Threatened, Complete, Cervix Closed.

Inevitable abortion
USG: Gestational sac intact
Cervical os: Dilated

Incomplete abortion
USG: POC present
Cervical os: Dilated

Mnemonic: ID - Inevitable, Incomplete, cervix is Dilated

Threatened abortion describes cases in which vaginal bleeding has occurred and the cervical os is closed, but the diagnostic criteria for spontaneous abortion have not been met.

Inevitable abortion refers to the presence of an open internal os in the presence of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. Most often the conception products are not expelled and intracervical contents are present at the time of examination. A sac may be seen low within the uterus and progressive migration of the same may be demonstrated on serial scans.

Essentially, a threatened abortion progresses to an inevitable abortion if cervical dilatation occurs. Once tissue has passed through the cervical os, this will then be termed an incomplete abortion, and ultimately a complete miscarriage.  

Incomplete abortion refers to cases in which vaginal bleeding and/or pain are present, the cervix is dilated, and products of conception are found within the cervical canal on examination.

Complete abortion refers to cases in which the products of conception are entirely out of the uterus and cervix, and, on examination, the cervix is closed and the uterus is small and well-contracted; vaginal bleeding and pain may be mild or may have resolved.

Missed abortion refers to a spontaneous abortion in a patient with or without symptoms and with a non-viable fetus within the uterus and a closed cervical os.

That's all!

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