Friday, January 20, 2017

How to check for the Pupils : Clinical Pearl

Hello everyone !
This is a post about how to look for a normal pupil while doing an ophthalmological examination.
So here goes :
1. The Setting.
- Relax the Patient
- Take the patient to a semi dark room.
- Make the patient Fixate on a distant point to eliminate any error that Accomodation may produce.
- Place an obstruction between the two eyes.
- Always shine your torch laterally and bring it in only from the sides to avoid light shining directly on the other eye.
2. The Parameters.
Look for the following in the pupils :
- Size
- Shape  ( for eg. You may get a Festooned pupil on adding your Mydriasis if the patient has adhesions)
- Number ( for eg. You may get Poly Coria which causes Diplopia )
- Location  ( for eg. You may get Corectopia)
3. Reaction to light.
- Unless you've met the criteria above ( The setting) , you cannot say 'Direct and indirect reflex present' .
So unless you're in a semi dark room (and the other 3 criteria mentioned above) you would plainly shine the torch and look for constriction. This plainly shows the pupils are reactive to light.
4. Light Reflexes.   
- Check for your direct and consentual (indirect) reflexes in both your eyes after meeting the listed Criteria in the *Setting* !
Hope this helps !
Happy studying !
Stay aweosme.

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