Friday, April 21, 2017

Nail Changes in Medicine : A Summary

Hi everyone. Just a list of changes you can see in the nails in different systemic Diseases. So let's get nailed ;)

1. Clubbing -
Loss of angle between the nail and the nail fold - More soft and bulbous nail.
Typically indicates Cardio Pulmonary function disturbance :
--> Cardiac conditions like Cyanotic heart disease, Infective endocarditis and Atrial myxoma.
--> Respiratory conditions :
Neoplastic like CA lung ( Esp. Squamous cell CA) , Mesothelioma.
Infective like Bronchiectasis , Abscess , Empyema.
(Non cardiorespiratory causes = Inflammatory bowel disease, Biliary Cirrhois.
Thyroid Acropachy , Acromegaly. )

2. Koilonychia -
Spoon shaped nails.
Strongly indicative of Iron Deficiency anemia or Fungal nail infection.

3. Onycholysis -
Destruction of nail. 
Seen in Psoriasis , Hyperthyroid and Fungal nail infection.

4. Chronic Paronychia -
Inflammation of nail fold. May have swollen nail and discharge with throbbing pain. May occur due to frequent nail biting.

5. Cyanosis -
Can be looked for in nail bed. We have a post on this already.

6. Beau line -
Transverse furrows from temporary arrest of nail growth due to increased stress.
Nails grow at 0.1 mm/d , so furrow distance from the cuticle can be used to time the attack. Can be seen in Malaria , Typhus , Rheumatic fever , Kawasaki.

7. Mees line -
White transverse bands in Arsenic poisoning / Renal failure.

8. Muerhcke's line
White parallel lines without furrowing on the nail.
Seen in Hypoalbuminemia.

9. Terry's nails -
Proximal portion of nail is white / pink , tip is reddish brown.
Seen in cirrhosis , CRF

10. Splinter hemorrhage -
Longitudinal Hemorrhage streaks under the nail seen in Infective endocarditis.

What a fun way to get nailed down 😂 Happy studying !
Stay awesome.

~ A.P.Burkholderia.

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