Sunday, April 16, 2017

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome : A Crisp Overview

Hi everyone ! So I recently saw a patient who possibly had Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. So I though I would do a post on it !

1. The Syndrome -

NMS is an idiosyncratic reaction to Anti psychotic drugs. It causes a host of symptoms like Rigidity , Hyperpyrexia and altered consciousness.

2. The Etiology -

- All Antipsychotic drugs can cause NMS. But most commonly implicated are Haloperidol, Fluphenazine and Chlorpromazine.
- Especially at risk are those taking Depot preparations.
- Even lithium in high doses can precipitate this.
- Atypical Antipsychotic drugs have a lower propensity to cause this.

3. The Pathophysiology -
- Although largely speculative , the cause is said to be the dopaminergic blockade by the anti psychotic drugs.
- Blockade of D2 in Hypothalamus is responsible for the Behavioral and Temperature changes.
- Blockade of D2 in the basal ganglia ( nigro striatal pathway) causes the Rigidity.
- increased muscular activity can cause muscle break down.

4. The Clinical Features

- generally within 4-10 days after starting the Antipsychotic drug. But can even occur years later.
- Hyperthermia ( Hypothalamus is conked off )
- Lead pipe Rigidity ( Basal ganglia are screwed)
- Altered mental state - delirious.
- Sweating/ Diaphoresis  ( compensation for high temp)
- Tachycardia
- Dyspnea
- Urinary incontinence
- Dysphagia
- Pallor.

Symptoms develop over a period of 24-72 hours.

5. Tests -
- Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK MM) is raised
- Leukocytosis
- Low Iron
- Deranged LFT and LDH

( Can be used to differentiate from serotonin syndrome)

- Diagnosis requires Hyperthermia + Rigidity +   2  other features ( including riased leukocytes and CK MM)

6. Management -
- Ventilatory support if needed
- stop Antipsychotic drugs.
- Anti pyrectics . Ice packs. Cooling blankets.
- Specific -->
Dantrolene - Muscle relaxant and Hyperthermia management. 400 mg/D.

- Bromocriptine - D2 agonist.

- ECT may be needed.

Hope this was helpful ! Happy studying and Stay awesome.

~ A.P.Burkholderia

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