Sunday, April 16, 2017

Reversible Causes of Dementia : Mnemonic

Hi everyone ! This is a short post on causes of dementia that can be corrected. This is very important as most causes other than these have no available treatment ! (One Reversible cause of dementia is the Demeantor's kiss ;;) Treat using  Expectro Patronum)

So the medically treatable causes include the following.

Remember : ABCD2E

- Alcoholism
- Vitamin B deficiency - Thiamine / Niacin /B12
- CNS infections - HIV , Chronic Meningoencephalitis , Whipple Disease, Neurosyphilis.
- Depression
- Drug induced
- Endocrine - Thyroid disturbances

Let's look at how these can be corrected medically.
- A = Alcohol abuse. May be a result of Alcoholic delirium/ Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. So the management would include giving Thiamine to the patient , and alcohol withdrawal using Disulfiram ans other anti craving drugs like Ondansetron, Acamprosate, Topiramate and Naltrexone.

- Vitamin B Deficiency = Thiamine deficiency we've seen above.
Niacin Deficiency causes 3 D's - Diarrhea , Dermatitis and Dementia. So treat that using Niacin.
B12 Deficiency and possibly folic acid can also cause Dementia.

- CNS Infections = They cause transient cognitive changes that are reversible on treating the disease.

- Depression = may cause depressive pseudodementia or even true dementia. (pseudo dementia = no confabulation or impaired recent memory)

- Drug induced = Chronic use of drugs like BDZ , Opiates and TCA's.

- Endocrine = Hypothyroidism is notorious to cause Dementia.


The surgically correctable causes are below.
Remember = T2 H2

- Tumors  (esp frontal lobe tumors )
- Trauma (Subdural Hematoma)
- Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)
- Hydrocephalus

- Tumors are resected surgically.
-  For the hydrocephalus group , ventriculo peritoneal shunting is performed.
- NPH = Triad of symptoms showing Gait disturbances , Urinary incontinence and Dementia. (GUD)

Hope this post helped you and didn't leave you too demented. !  If it did, have some chocolate like Lupin would offer ;;)
Happy studying.
Stay awesome.

~ A.P.Burkholderia


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