Sunday, October 15, 2017

Neuroendocrine tumours of the Stomach

Neuroendocrine tumours of the stomach are uncommon tumours with a benign behaviour usually- hence known commonly as "Carcinoids"

They are diagnosed by the usual histomorphology of small organoid nests or clusters of cells with salt pepper or stippled nuclear chromatin and synaptophysin or chromogranin positivity.

We divide them into 4 types

1. One develops in the background of reactive gastrin secreting cell hyperplasia in cases of pernicious anemia

2. The second type is a part of Zollinger Ellison syndrome

3. The third is independent of any syndromic association or association with pernicious anemia

4. The fourth type is classified based on the histomorphology- "Neuroendocrine Carcinoma"- showing mitosis, nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromasia

The closest differential could be Gastrc Lymphoma-
1. Lymphomas would not usually have an organoid pattern, tend to grow sparing the crypts and tend to form lymphoepithelial clusters
2. They would not have synaptophysin or chromogranin positivity
3. They would stain for the relevant lymphoid markers according to the cell of their origin- B or T cell type.
4. Hormone or S. Gastrin levels would be useful

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