Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Pathophysiology: Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hello guys, here’s a whiteboard summary of how DKA happens.

[Please click on the image to enhance it]

- DKA is a medical emergency. It’s a complication of type 1 diabetes.
- DKA has a triad of hyperglycemia, ketosis [metabolic acidosis] and dehydration.
- Main ketone bodies are beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Acetone is only a minor ketoacid.
- Lactic acidosis also contributes to metabolic acidosis.
- More glucose in blood leads to more glucose filtered into urine causing osmotic diuresis.

- Ashish Singh 


  1. Shouldn't it be complication of type 1 diabetes

    1. You're partly correct. DKA is commonly associated with type 1 diabetes and HHS with type 2. I'll bring that to the authors attention.
      I state partly correct because of this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842543/

      A retrospective review found that among adult patients presenting with DKA, 47% had known type 1 diabetes, 26% had known type 2 diabetes and 27% had newly diagnosed diabetes.

      DKA is no longer exclusively associated with type 1 diabetics. While the majority of patients presenting with DKA are type 1 diabetics, a minority will be patients with type 2 diabetes.

    2. Thank you, Aparna for bringing it to my notice. The correction has been made. :)


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