Thursday, June 18, 2020

Topics to read before PG entrance exams!

Hello Awesomites!

The aim is to help the students who want to give upcoming NEET PG Exam and are clueless about how to plan and prepare ?
I know my friend struggling day in and out for life in Covid wards. Exams doesn't matter now.
When they will have time in hand I want to help them out with plan beforehand. They are already brilliant enough to have been through all the challenges. :)

I know you can't predict what is important for this or next exams. Atleast with time in hand you can glance through some topics that contribute 70% of any exam. I am sharing the list 1st year subject I made during my preparation.

1.ANATOMY
  • Embryology 
  1. Pharyngeal arches
  2. Neural crest derivatives
  3. Oogenesis and spermatogenesis
  4. Notochord and remnants 
  5. Extraembryonic mesoderm
  6. Diaphragm 
  7. Cardiovascular system ( Abnormal subclavian artery)
  8. Urogenital system 
  • Histology 
  1. Cerebellum
  2. Osteoblasts
  3. Urinary bladder epithelium
  4. Cell junctions
  5. Collagen types
  6. cartilage
  7. Tonsil,Lymph nodes, spleen,thymus
  8. Stomach glands
  9. Skin with sebaceous glands
  10. Connective tissue types
  11. Retina 
  12. Salivary gland
  • NEUROLOGY
  1. Fornix 
  2. Corpus callosum
  3. Cranial nerves and its lesion
  4. Brainstem syndromes (lateral medullary )
  5. Foramen of skull
  6. Facial nerve and trigeminal nerve
  7. blood brain barrier
  8. Functional area and functional columns
  9. Parasympathetic ganglion 
  10. Phrenic nerve and vagus
  • GROSS
  1.  Compartments of lower limb with nerve and blood supply
  2. Blood supply of thyroid,oesophagus,ureter,Anal canal 
  3. Waldeyer ring
  4. External carotid artery
  5. Circle of willis
  6. Muscle of eye
  7. Brachial plexus (Sensory and motor supply of upper limb)
  8. Perineum
  9. Cruciate ligaments
  10. Vocal cords
  11. Mediastinum
  12. IVC tributaries
  13. Cavernous sinus and superior orbital fissure 
  14. Splanchanic plexus
2. BIOCHEMISTRY
  • Inborn error of metabolism (Types,Enzyme deficient,hallmark feature,Investigation of choice and treatment)
  • Rate limiting step 
  • Carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis,Glycogen storage disease,Glucogenesis,glycogenolysis,PFK-1)
  • Lipid metabolism ( Hyperlipoproteinemia and hypolipoproteinemia)
  • Vitamin (Coenzyme)
  • Electron transport chain inhibitor
  • Heme metabolism and Porphyria
  • Ketone body formation 
  • Urea cycle disorder
  • Competitive, non competitive and allosteric inhibitors
  • Mitochondrial disorders 
  • Amino acid disorder
  • Lead poisoning
  • Translation process 
3.PHYSIOLOGY
  • Receptors
  • Neurotransmitter and functions
  • Second messenger
  • Reflexes
  • Baroreceptors and chemorecptors
  • JVP 
  • ECG And EEG
  • Spirometry
  • RAAS 
  • Counter current exchanger and multiplier
  • Factors affecting compliance of lung 
  • Action potential
  • Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
  • Channels and types 
  • GIT hormones 
  • Tracts and lesions(brown sequerd syndrome)
  • LH,FSH,GH and insulin glucagon
 Following are the list of 2nd year topics.

1.FORENSIC MEDICINE
  • Ballistics (Bullet ranges)
  • Identification (female male, blood sample)
  • Recent amendments in acts (POCSO act, MTP Act)
  • Application of IPC,CrPC sections
  • Postmortem changes
  • Dentition And Xray of wrist elbow and pelvis to determine age
  • Injuries -fracture of skull, RTA, Bruise
  • Toxicology- Plant based image, Preservation of viscera, Snakes,Arsenic, OP poisoning,Mercury,cadmium,Cardiac poison
  • Consent
  • Grievous hurt and murder vs culpable homicide
  • Seminal stains
  • Dowry death and Rape
  • Battered baby syndrome
  • Plant Toxicology (castor,abrus,strychnine,Dhatura,Aconite,Oleander,Calotropis,Opium,Cannabis)
2. PATHOLOGY-
  • Breast cancer, Lung cancer and Ovarian and testicular cancer
  • CD markers
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Vasculitis
  • Endocarditis And MI
  • Types of hypersensitivity reaction
  • Platelet and coagulation disorder(ITP,TTP,hemophilias,vWD)
  • Stains And vacutainers
  • Transfusion reaction 
  • Graft rejction
  • Crohns vs Ulcerative colitis
  • Necrosis, apoptosis and its variant
  • Mode of inheritance
  • Leukemia and lymphoma prognostic markers
  • Renal histology and gross
  • Liver histology and gross
  • CNS tumors 
3.PHARMACOLOGY
  • Antimicrobial Drug of choice and mechanism of action 
  • Classification - aminoglycoside , MRSA And drugs for cystic fibrosis
  • Hypolipidemic Agents 
  • Asthma ( New drugs and guidelines)
  • Arthritis (RA and gout)
  • General pharmacology ( Pharmacokinetics,clinical trial,Pharmacodynamics)
  • Concentration dependent kinetics and time dependent kinetics and post antibiotic effect
  • Anti TB drugs
  • Anti viral and anti HIV (anti hep B and C)
  • Anti fungal
  • CVS- MI ,HF, angina managment
  • Endocrine- DM,Osteoporosis,SERM,SERD,Gnrh agonist
  • GIT-Constipation (opioid induced,IBS related) ,Diarrhea,peptic ulcer
  • CNS-Anti epileptic, Sedative,lithium toxicity,neurodegenerative disorder, side effect 
  • ANS- Emergency medicines,anaphylaxis, receptors ,poisoning 
  • Chemotherapy-Anticancer,monoclonal antibody,small molecules,kinase inhibitors
  • Prostaglandins 
  • Insulin 
4.MICROBIOLOGY-
  • Sterilisation and disinfection (Indicator)
  • Immunology (Antibody,complement deficiency,Primary immunodeficiency)
  • Latest outbreaks (Zika,Congohemorrhagic fever,Ebola,Corona)
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Vectors
  • Parasitology -Eggs
  • Congenital infections-Toxoplasmosis,congenital syphillis,rubella,herpes,varicella
  • HPV infection,HHV-8
  • Bioterrorism
  • Larva migrans,larva currens (cutaneous and visceral)
  • CD4 counts and Opportunistic infection
  •  HIV and TB
  • Food poisoning
  • Atypical bacteria treatment and infection 
  • Dimorphic fungi
  • Actinomycosis,Botryomycosis and eumycetoma
  • Meningitis
  • Exanthematous disease
  • Neisseria,diphtheria,Listeria,bacillus anthrax,legionella,campylobacter jejuni
  • Bacterial virulence factors,growth factors
  • Rickettsial disease, spirochetes(weils ds) 
  • Drug resistance mechanism

Following is the list of 3rd year topics.

1.COMMUNITY MEDICINE-
  • Surveillance programs
  • Sensitivity, specificity,PPV and NPV (Screening of disease)
  • Types of studies 
  • Odds ratio and relative risk ratio
  • Bias
  • Sampling 
  • Biostatistics- central tendency  (Box and whisker plot )
  •  Level of prevention 
  • Vaccine and types (Toxoid and live attenuated)
  • Demography and family planning
  • Biomedical waste
  • Health programmes ( RNTCP, HIV)
  • Communication
  • Nutrition and related programmes
  • Disaster
  • Null hypothesis,P value and alpha value
  • Confidence limit 
2.OPHTHALMOLOGY-
  •  Refractive errors (Astigmatism)
  • Surgery and post op complication(Glaucoma,cataract,squint)
  • Conjuctivitis
  • Corneal ulcer (Bacterial,fungal and herpetic) (Stains)
  • ROP and systemic retinopathy (Hypertensive and diabetic retinopathy)
  • Retinitis pigmentosa and syndromes
  • Retinal detachment and cause
  • Retinoblastoma
  •  Strabismus
  • Optic neuritis
  • Visual field defect 
  • Blow out fracture and trauma to eye
  • Glaucoma and drugs(Contraindication and indication)
  • Managment of ptosis
  • Light reflex and accomodation reflex and pupil
  • 3,4,6 Cranial nerve
  •  OCT ,Fluorescein angiograhy,tonometers,charts,
  • Sudden loss of vision and gradual loss of vision differentials
3. ENT-
  • Appearance of tympanic membrane in various disease
  • Surgery (Tonsillectomy,Adenoidectomy,Mastoidectomy)
  • Paranasal sinus
  • CSF rhinorrhea
  • Laryngeal disease (Papilloma,vocal cord paralysis, laryngeal muscles action, laryngeal cancers)
  • Tracheostomy
  • Abscess 
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  • Juvenile angiofibroma
  • Test of hearing and vertigo
  • Otosclerosis
  • Cochlear implants
  • Oral cavity cancers 
  • cervical Lymph node  and neck dissections
 Following is the list of Final year topics.

 1.OBSTETRIC AND GYNECOLOGY-

  • Pre-eclampsia (Definitions)
  • HELLP
  • PPH (prophylaxis and treatment)
  • Perineal tear (Types and managment)
  • Diabetes and anomalies scan 
  • Shoulder dystocia maneuvers
  • Molar pregnancy (High risk and low risk for GTN)
  • Ectopic (Diagnosis, Investigation and managment)
  • Abortions 
  • Recurrent pregnancy loss (Investigations and causes)
  • Cervical incompetence
  • MTP
  • Diagnosis and physiological changes of pregnancy 
  •  Abruptio vs placenta previa vs Vasa previa
  • Heart disease
  • MgSO4 and drug
  • Fetal monitoring -NST,BPP,doppler
  • Twins and complications
  • Labor-stages,partogram
  • Placenta types and associated pathology
  • Rh incompatibility
  • Amenorrhea (primary and secondary)
  • Mullerian anomalies (Class)
  • Asherman, AIS,Gonadectomy indication
  • Puberty and precocious puberty
  • Menopause (Hormone replacement therapy guidelines) 
  • Postmenopausal bleeding and premature ovarian failure (Levels of FSH)
  • Semen analysis (Evaluation and IUI and TESE)
  • PCOS -Diagnosis,drugs
  • Endometriosis
  • Cervical,vulval,ovarian,endometrial cancer,Fibroid
  • Krukenberg
  • PID
  • Prolapse 
  • Emergency contaceptives
  • IUD
  • Absolute contraindications in whole subject
  • Female sterilisation  
2.PEDIATRICS-
  • Developmental milestones
  • Neonatal reflexes
  • Neonatal resuscitation
  • Jaudice,sepsis,Hyaline membrane disease
  • Congenital infections-TORCH
  • Vaccines(IAP and NIS)
  • Diarrhea,pneumonia,dehydration managment
  • Pediatric epilepsy
  • Febrile seizure (Risk factors,recurrent risk,prohylaxis)
  • Severe acute malnutrition
  • Rickets
  • meningitis
  • Neuro-Cerebral palsy and neurocutaneous syndrome
  • Pediatric vasculitis-HSP and Kawasaki Disease
  •  Nephrotic syndrome
  • Congenital heart disease( VSD,TOF,TGA and ductus dependent CHD)
  • Trisomies
  • Hypoxic Ischemic encephalopathy VS Periventricular leukomalacia
  • Fluid managment including shock managment in children
  • Childhood pneumonia, Epiglottitis, Acute laryngotracheobronchitis
  • Microcephaly and macrocephaly 
  • Hydrocephalus and Neural tube defect  
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome,warfarin syndrome
3. ANESTHESIA-
  • IV anesthetic agents (Propofol)
  • Day care surgery (Drug of choice)
  • Venous air embolism
  • Local anesthetic (Remember concentration also)
  • Vaporisers color 
  • Inhalational agents 
  • Monitoring (Capnography)
  • Color coding of cylinder
  • Circuits
  • Mallampati and ASA grading
  • Premedication duration of stoppage and continuation
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Airway devices
  • Endotracheal tube (formula)
  • Epidural vs spinal anesthesia (Level of blocks)
  • Modes of ventilation
 4.DERMATOLOGY-
  •  Pigmentation Diseases 
  1. Hyperpigmentation
  2. Nevus (Nevus of ota/mongolian spot/CMN/AMN)
  3. Melasma
  4. Acanthosis nigricans
  5. Becker nevus
  6. Hypopigmentation -PKDL/Pityriasis versicolor/alba/Hansens
  7. Depigmentation-Vitiligo/Contact leukoderma
  • Signs (Auspitz,nikolsky,bulla spread sign)
  • Histopathology of psoriasis and lichen planus
  • Mast cell disorder-Urticaria pigmentosa image
  • Papulosquamous disease - Psoriasis ,lichen planus
  • Treatment of Psoriasis
  • STD (Syphillis,chancroid,donovanosis,Herpes genitalis,syndromic approach)
  • Microbiology of STD organism( Dark ground,school of fish,Tzanck smear,Donovan body,Gonococcus)
  • Drug Reaction -Fixed drug eruption, erythema multiforme,SJS/TEN
  •  Blistering disease 
  1. Pemphigus(clinical treatment)
  2. Bullos pemphigoid
  3. dermatitis herpetiformis
  4. Histopathology of blister level and Direct immunofluorescence image
  • Infections
  1. Fungal (Tinea /pityriasis versicolor)
  2. Hansens 
  3. TB
  4. Viral (HPV/HHV/Molluscum contagiosum)
  • Hair disease-Alopecia images,DLE,trichotillomania
  • Acne,Rosacea
  • cutaneous markers of internal malignancy
5.RADIOLOGY-
  • Emergency radiology-RTA,splenic injury,FAST,Perforation
  • Radiological anatomy especially applied aspect
  • CNS tumor
  • Bone tumor
  • BIRADS
  • TIRADS
  • Radiation physics and acute radiation syndrome
  • Radiotherapy basics
  • Contrast in various studies
  • USG and doppler
  • Doppler waveforms
6.ORTHOPEDICS-
  • Knee joint (Everything)
  • Shoulder dislocation
  • Bone (Oncology+radiological picture)
  • Pediatric Hip(Rdaiology +managment)
  • Infections(TB,Osteomyelitis)
  • CTEV
  • AVN
  • Tennis elbow and dequeverian
  • Eponyms and test
  • Blood supply of femur
  • Pseudoarthrosis
  • Genu varum/valgus,cubitus varus/valgus
  • malunion 
  • Instruments
7.SURGERY-
  • Glasgow coma scale (Changes)
  • Burn
  • Cannula color coding 
  • Triage
  • Trauma
  • Incisions,suture,foleys,NG tube,Knots,Scores
  • Latest updates in breast cancer,thyroid and hepatobiliary cancers,Pancreatic cancer,stomach,colorectal cancer
  • Bed sores staging 
  •  Renal stones managment
  • Gall stone managment and surgical complication
  • Bariatric surgery
  • Acute pancreatitis managment 
  • Upper GI and lower GI bleed management and causes
  • Aortic aneurysm
  • Meckel diverticulum
  • Wound classification
  • Cancer-(Breast,rectum,stomach,oesophagus,HCC,prostate,thyroid)
  • Cancer follow up duration 
  • Carcinoid and GIST and gastrinoma
 8.MEDICINE-
  •  ECG visuals
  • Cardiac emergencies-Arrest,Unstable angina,MI,Arrhythmia,Dissection
  • Respiratory emergency-Pulmonary embolism,pneumothorax,Asthma 
  • Stroke
  • Meningitis (Bacterial,viral,aseptic)
  • Approach to patient in Coma
  • Seizure
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • ABG
  • Hypertension and its emergency and management
  • Murmurs and valvular lesions
  • Pericardial d/o
  • hepatitis(Viral,autoimmune)
  • Non alcoholic and alcoholic liver disease
  • Glomerular disease
  • UTI
  • CKD
  • DM (management of different complications)
  • Neurodegenerative d/o ,neuropathy,myopathy
  • Septic shock guidelines
  • GBS
  • Poisoning 
  • New asthma guidelines
  • RTA and Inherited channelopathies
  • MEN syndrome
  • SIADH, DI,Pheochromocytoma
  • AIDS defining illness
  • Connective tissue disorder
  • Infective endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease
  • Prakinson and alzheimers
  • IBS,UC ,Crohns
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Jones and dukes criteria
  • dyslipidemia management 
10.PSYCHIATRY-
  • General psychiatry (terms and its meaning )
  • MMSE
  • Psychotic disorders
  1. Schizophrenia
  2. Delusional d/o- Named syndromes (Capgras,Fregoli,Othello,Ekbom)
  • Mood disorder (Treatment is very important)
  1. Mania
  2. Depression
  3. Bipolar
  • Neurotic disorder 
  1. Anxiety disorder
  2. OCD related disorder
  3. Dissociative disorder
  4. Trauma and stress related disorder
  5. Somatoform disorder
  • Substance abuse and deaddiction
  • Organic mental disorder(dementia)
  • Sleep disorder
  • Eating disorder
  • Sexual disorder
  • Personality types and disorder
  • Drugs (SSRI and its sideeffect)
  • Psychotherapy types and choice
  • Defence mechanism  
You can edit this according to you. 
Hope it will help.
-Upasana Y.

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