Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Mnemonics for Modified Jones Criteria

Modified Jones Criteria is used  for diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic Fever.

Mnemonic - "JONES CAFE PAL"

Joint involvement (polyarthritis)
O 'O' looks like a heart - myocarditis
Nodules subcutaneous
Erythema Marginatum
Sydenham Chorea

CRP elevated
ESR elevated

Prolong PR interval
Anamnesia of Rheumatism
L eukocytosis

Presence of  either
- 2 major criterias or
- 1 major criteria + 2 minor criteria

Is considered to diagnose patient positive.

Written by,
Pratheek Prabhu

SIADH vs Diabetes Insipidus, Osmolarity and Sodium levels in urine and serum in both (mnemonic)

Serum and urine findings in SIADH and  Diabetes Insipidus can really mess up our brains :S

A nice mnemonic to memorize SIADH is to recall the letters as  :
 "S"odium "I"s "A"lways "D"own "H"ere (by here: I mean serum) =>
so in SIADH:
=> low Na in serum
=> high Na in Urine & high Urine Osmolarity

Now ...just think of the opposite and you ll get Diabetes Insipidus
so in DI:
=> high Na in serum /high serum osmolarity
=> low Na in Urine


Monday, September 25, 2017

Chronic Renal Failure : Indications for dialysis.

Hello guys!

In this post I am going to list down the Indications for dialysis in patients of Chronic Renal Failure.

Absolute Indications :
1. Volume overload not responding to medication.
2. Refractory hypertension.
3. Hyperkalemia unresponsive to medications.
4. Severe metabolic acidosis unresponsive to medications.
5. Uremic pericarditis
6. Neurological signs and symptoms of Uremia.
7. Plasma creatinine more than 1060 umol/l or BUN more than 36 mmol/l

Relative Indications :
1. Anorexia
2. Severe anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin.
3. Persistent severe pruritus.
4. Restless legs syndrome.

That's all.
Thank you

MD Mobarak Hussain (Maahii)

Some thalamic nuclei and their function (mnemonic)

Thalamic nuclei can really cause a headache if no mnemonics are used while studying them :O

The following mnemonics may be used to associate the nuclei with their functions:

1- Ventral Postero-Lateral nuclues  (VPL) => Very Painful Leg
This nucleus has input (pain, temperature, pressure, touch, vibration and proprioception) from Spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial lemniscus ( Lower Limbs and Upper Limbs).

2- Ventral Postero-Medial nucleus (VPM) => Very Painful Mouth
This nucleus has input (face sensastion and taste) from trigeminal and gustatory pathway).

3- Lateral Geniculate Nucleus  (LGN) => Looking Good Naked :O
This nucleus has input (part of the visual pathway) from the optic nerve.

4- Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN) => Making Good Noise
This nucleus has input (part of the hearing pathway) from superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectum.

& that's it! :)


Sunday, September 24, 2017

Relation between Type I, Type II errors and Null hypothesis (mnemonic)

Biostatistics can really be dry and hard to engulf sometimes. 

One of the things that always confused me was when to accept and when to reject the null hypothesis. 

Since  mnemonics are one of the best things ever, here you go:

Type ONE error:
You use a verb with ONE consonant => reJect => so you reJect Null hypothesis

Type TWO error:
You use a verb with TWO consonants => aCCept => so you aCCept Null hypothesis

& that's it! :)


Saturday, September 23, 2017

Bacterial exotoxins that work via overactivating Adenylate Cyclase, a mnemonic

There are many bugs which have many exotoxins - to memorize those that have an exotoxin which work through overactivating Adenylate Cyclase therefore increasing cyclic AMP (+ cAMP) => just remember the letters of the word: CAMP

=> the bugs are:
Cholera (Vibrio Cholera)
Anthrax (Bacillus Anthracis)
Moctezuma's revenge (a fancy name of heat labile entertotoxigenic E.coli, ETEC)
Pertussis (Bordetella Pertussis)


Chromosomes affected in syndromes that sound similar, a mnemonic

Hello everyone!

Wilson's disease, Williams syndrome and Wilm's tumor are confusing since they all start with "Wil". This is how I remember them and differentiate which chromosome number is affected in which disease. 

Wilson's disease: (for Dr. House fans)
Remember Dr. House, Wilson and Thirteen?

So that's how I remember that in Wilson's disease chromosome 13 is affected. 

William syndrome:
If you read the 2nd part of the word William, it is: I AM. When you re-arrange it: I AM WILL. 

Remember Will Smith and his famous movie - Seven Pounds? 

William syndrome => chromosome 7 affected. 

Wilm's tumor:
Just write the I and L as 11 so it is W11m's => Chromosome 11 is affected.


Trinucleotide repeats mnemonics

In Friedreich Ataxia, patients have problems in their gait => GAAAAAAAAAAAit :D
so the trinucleotide repeat is: GAA

In Fragile X syndrome, patients have problems in their testicles (large testes among other things) so they  "Can't Get it Going" :P  => the trinucleotide repeat is: CGG


Friday, September 22, 2017

Renal stones and pH of urine mnemonic


Here's a post on the association between renal stones and pH of urine.

Which stones form in acidic urine?

Mnemonic: It's pretty simple, stones which have "weak acids" as a component.

Calcium oxalate (Oxalic ACID)
Cysteine (Which is an Amino ACID)

PS: This is just a mnemonic.

Which stones form in alkaline urine?

Calcium Phosphate
Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate

That's all!


Thursday, September 21, 2017

SERM for vulvovaginal atrophy mnemonic

Which of the following is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is prescribed mainly for treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (vulvovaginal atrophy)?

A.) Bazedoxifene
B.) Raloxifene
C.) Phentermine
D.) Lasofoxifene
E.) Ospemifene

Atherosclerosis location mnemonic

Atherosclerosis location mnemonic

"A Cholesterol Plaque In Circles"

Most commonly involved vessels in decreasing order is:

Abdominal Aorta (especially around ostia - openings of major branches)
Coronary Artery
Popliteal Artery
Internal Carotid (especially at carotid sinus)

- Submitted by Murad

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Ocular toxoplasmosis and HIV

Here are some fun facts about Ocular Toxoplasmosis and HIV!

Ocular toxoplasmosis usually causes a retinal lesion with inflammation, giving the classical "headlight in the fog"  appearance.

Headlight is the lesion and the fog is due to the inflammation (WBCs).

HIV being an immunodeficient condition, there are lesser number of WBCs and hence there's no fog - Just the headlight.

The drug of choice for treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis is pyrimethamine.

However, it is contraindicated in pregnancy and HIV due to the risk of megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects, respectively.

In pregnancy, spiramycin is preferred.

In HIV, the preferred drugs are clindamycin, azithromycin or quinolones.

- Written by Dr²

Sunday, September 10, 2017

Enucleation, Evisceration & Exenteration

In this post, we will look at the definition, indications and some few details regarding these 3 ophthalmologic surgeries. 

Saturday, September 9, 2017

Cytochrome P450 3A4

Hello everyone!

Today lets discuss the Cytochrome P450 3A4
It is the microsomal enzyme involved in metabolism of xenobiotics. Maximum number of drugs are metabolised by CYP 3A4 in our body.

Here’s how you  remember the substrates and the inducers of the enzyme:

“In emergency Straightaway give a CPR and ACT SaNely

The inducers are:
S: St John Wort
CPR: Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbitone, Rifampicin

The substrates are:
ACT SaNely

A-ACT drugs(Anti Histamines) 
C- Cyclosporine
T- Tacrolimus
S- Statins
N-Navirs (protease inhibitors)

And how do we remember the inhibitors?

Shout “Fire in the Hole!”
Fluconazole   Ketoconazole
and Ritonavir and Erythromycin
Also you can have some grapefruit juice to chill out! Grapefruit juice is also a Inhibitor of CYP3A4.

That’s all
Thank you,
Chaitanya Inge

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Drug interaction

Hello :)

Modification of response  to one drug by another drug or non drug (like food ,beverages like alcohol,smoking) when they are administered simultaneously or in quick succession  .

Factors for drug interactions:-
1.Multiple drugs for same disease.
2.Multiple prescribers.
3.Multiple diseases.
4.Poor patient compliance .
5. Drug factors like it is not palatable or too many in frequency .
6.Multiple unknown action of drugs.
7. Most imp is patients age .

Effects of drug interaction:-
1.Quantitative i.e Increase  or decrease the response intensity.
2. Qualitative:- abnormal /different type of response.

Mechanism of drug interaction :-
A.Pharmacokinetic interactions include,
 1.Absorption (either complex formation ,pH change ,or alteration in motility of GIT.)

2. Distribution:- (displacement from plasma protein binding site + inhibition of metabolism /or excretion)

3. Metabolism:- ( induction of enzymes or inhibition of enzymes or hepatic blood flow)

4.Excretion:- ( alteration in urine pH, Competition for active secretion ,renal blood flow)

B. Pharmacodynamic drug interactions include,
2. Summation

C.Drug interaction before administration:-
Either mixing before administration.
Or, exposure to light in some cases. (Like sodium nitroprusside).

-Upasana Y.

Blood retinal Barrier

Hello :)

There are two blood retinal Barrier (BRB) :-

1. Outer blood retinal Barrier - Formed by tight junction of retinal pigmented epithelium.

2. Inner blood Retinal Barrier - Formed by Muller cells and pericytes surrounding the lining of microvasculature.

That's all for today.
-Upasana Y. :)

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