Monday, August 29, 2016

CT appearance of subdural and epidural hematoma mnemonic


Subdural is crescent or semilunar shaped.
Epidural is biconvex lens shaped.

Sunday, August 28, 2016

Phimosis and paraphimosis mnemonic

What is phimosis and paraphimosis?

Phimosis is constriction of the preputial orifice. In phimosis, the foreskin can not be retracted.

In paraphimosis, the foreskin can not be reduced back on the glans. It may cause a painful glans swelling going on to proceed to a gangrene. 

I always mix up the two, so mnemonic!

Another mnemonic - Call Paramedics if paraphimosis because it's a surgical emergency. 

This one was submitted by SG on our study group, "PAra is PAinful." 

That's all!

Step 2 CK: Management of liver laceration


Say you have a hemodynamically unstable patient with a gunshot wound or blunt trauma to the RUQ.
Why shouldn't you simply suture and close deep liver lacerations?

Because of the risk of hemobilia and abscess formation.

Here's what a surgeon must do:

Saturday, August 27, 2016

Polyarteritis nodosa mnemonic


Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotizing vaculitis of small and medium sized muscular arteries.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Neurogenic claudication

Did you know there is something called as neurogenic claudication?

Behcet's syndrome mnemonic

Hey guys! 
So I wanted to write something about Behcets and created a lame mnemonic for it.
Let's start :D

Monday, August 22, 2016

Anakinra mnemonic


Anakinra is an IL-1 receptor antagonist used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Types of arthritis

Causes of polyarticular symmetric arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Viral arthritis (Hepatitis, parvovirus EBV)

Causes of monoarticular arthritis

Antiphospholipid Syndrome mnemonic

Lemme tell you about APLA today :)

It is an autoantibody-mediated acquired thrombophilia characterized by recurrent arterial or venous
thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Study group discussion: Ferritin

Hello everyone!

Why do ferritin levels increase in Rheumatoid arthritis?
It is an acute phase protein.
The levels increase in serum as well as in synovial fluid. The rise is more in synovial fluid because of local production of ferritin in the inflamed joint.
Ferritin levels show a positive correlation with ESR, CRP, platelet count, and DAS score.
And a negative correlation with hematocrit levels.

Is there a difference of levels in inactive and active disease?
Yes, the levels are lower in inactive RA patients because of iron deficiency.
Synovial ferritin production in active RA leads to increase of ferritin in active disease.

Gold standards for diagnosis of iron deficiency in RA?
1. Bone marrow iron stain
2. Serum transferrin receptor analysis

What leads to high ferritin levels in SLE?
Ferritin synthesis is induced by interleukins IL-1, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) alpha in hepatocytes.  In SLE, there is defect in IL-1 production while IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels are increased. So, the high levels of ferritin are due to IL-6 and TNF-alpha. (IL-1 does not play a major role in the synthesis of ferritin)
The ferritin levels are correlated with ANA titre, anti-dsDNA titre, and SLEDAI score.
(No significant correlation with acute phase parameters and negative correlation with complement levels)

Zika virus infection and the Alzheimers'

Hello everyone!

The mosquito-borne zika virus has spread to most of the parts of Latin America, Pacific islands and the US. It has been recently linked to Alzheimers' disease and depression!

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Sjogren's syndrome mnemonic

Here's a short post about Sjogrens syndrome.

Hodgkins lymphoma and minimal change disease mnemonic

Which nephrotic syndrome is associated with Hodgkins lymphoma?

Lymphoma usually causes membranous nephropathy.

But Hodgkins is a weirdo which minimal change disease.

Mnemonic: Kids get MCD usually, so "Hodgkid"

Mnemonic by DJ AweSpear sent to us in our study group. Thanks!

Membranous glomerulonephritis mnemonic

Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults.

Associated with clots - DVT, renal vein thrombosis and PE are common.

Nephrotic syndrome associated with malignancy.

It's membranous glomerulonephritis! :D

Study group discussion: Fall of fever by crisis and fall of fever by lysis

Difference between fall of fever by crisis and fall of fever by lysis ?

In fall of fever by crisis, there's sudden decrease in temperature (Mostly due to treatment).

In fall of fever by lysis, reduction in temperature occurs gradually.

Typhoid fever falls by lysis.
(Step ladder pattern!)

Dengue fever falls by crisis.

Systemic sclerosis autoantibodies mnemonic

Today, I forgot which antibodies scleroderma is associated with T_T

Apparently, Qbanks don't write Scl-70 in their options. They like writing "Autoantibodies against topoisomearase I" and make my life difficult.

Anyway, here's my attempt to remember this next time. I don't know if it'll work. But hey, no harm trying?

Mauskopf facies

Here's a fact I read today.

"Mauskopf" means "Mouse head" in German.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

IkaN be a Khaleesi

This post is from the authors diary.
Game of thrones fan, continue reading.

Someone sent me this which is pretty hilarious. I sent it to two of my friends, one added more to it and the other suggested I put it on the blog xD

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Different types of skin lesions (as in rashes)

                          Hey guys, we started Internal Medicine Last week, so we were studying about different types of skin lesion as in rashes in Harrison’ Internal Medicine 19e. So I made little chart myself to memorize it. So I thought to share it with you all.

Sunday, August 14, 2016

Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis mnemonic

Here's a mini post for the day!

What are the symptoms of Polymyalgia rheumatica? What is it associated with?
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