Sunday, March 31, 2013

Lipoproteins and apoproteins

Hey guys!
We have always had difficulty remembering lipoproteins and apoproteins and stuff.. And what makes it simpler? Mnemonics!

After you eat, dietary trigylcerides is transported via chylomicrons from the intestine to the adipose tissue.
VLDL carries endogenous triglycerides from the liver to the peripheral tissues.

Both triglyceride transporters contain apoB

Chylomicrons have micro
Micro means small
So they have a small number, that is, apoB 48

VLDL have the larger number, apoB 100

apoC II is a Cofactor for lipoprotein lipase
Which hydrolyzes the triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
LIpoprotein LIpase is activated by InsuLIn

apoE helps in rEmnant uptake by lEvEr (Liver =P )

Chylomicron (B48, C-II, E) > Chylomicron remnant (B48, E)

VLDL (B100, C-II, E) > IDL (B100, E) > LDL (B100)
VLDL loses apoC-II to become IDL
IDL loses apoE to become LDL
LDL will transport cholesterol to peripheral tissues

apoA-I Activates lcAt (LCAT)
Also, I looks like l
It's on HDL
Converts cholesterol to cholesterol esters
(LCAT transfers a polyunsaturated fatty acid from 2nd carbon of glycerol to cholesterol forming lysolecithin and cholesterol ester)

*phew* That was work!
Let's have a look at the deficiencies now =)

So what happens if you have apoB deficiency?
No triglycerides is incorporated into VLDL and chylomicrons
Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids are low
Beta lipoprotein (LDL) is absent
Lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (especially A and E) are poorly absorbed (steatorrhea)
Hemolytic anemia—lipid imbalance causes RBC membranes to pucker (acanthosis)

What happens in lipoprotein lipase deficiency?
Increased triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL!
(You can't breakdown triglycerides to fatty acid and glycerol for uptake)

What happens if you have a LDL receptor deficiency?
There will be and increased levels of LDL and cholesterol
(Because peripheral tissues can't take them without the LDL receptor)

What happens if you have LCAT deficiency?
You have increased unesterified cholesterol
(You can esterify the cholesterol you have)
You also have increased phoshatidyl choline which is a component of lecithin

That's all!
 Have an awesome week <3


Post is continued here

Southern, Northern, and Western blot mnemonic

Hello everyone!

The mnemonic to remember blotting techniques is "SNoW DRoP"

S -    Southern - DNA     - D
N -   Northern - RNA     - R
O -   Oooooo - Ooooo    - O
W -  Western - Protein   - P

Blotting techniques illustration and mnemonic :)
There's another simpler one for all those who can speak the language Hindi.. Southern in Hindi is Dakshin for DNA & Western in Hindi is Paschim for Protein!

Cool facts on blotting techniques that the mnemonic doesn't cover -
If you want to visualize DNA at replication level, you will use Southern blot. This will require a DNA probe attached to phosphate.
RNA at transcription level can be visualized with Northern blot. This will require a DNA probe attached to phosphate too.
Remember: If you want to visualize protein at transcription level, you will go with Northern blot!
Proteins at translation level are just antigens (Whether they are cell membrane, cytoplasmic or secretory proteins!) Therefore, antibodies (not probes) are used to visualize proteins byWestern blot.
DNA binding proteins also known as transcription factors go to the nucleus and bind to DNA. They are proteins but they work at the DNA level. They are different than just regular antigens and therefore, we use DNA probe (not antibodies!) to visualize them. This is known as the South Western blot :)

That's all!

Hope you won't go, "Which direction was that again?" in the exam =P


Updated on 4th December, 2013: Hindi mnemonic & illustration.
Updated on 5th December, 2013: Cool facts that you may have not known.

Sunday, March 24, 2013

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency mnemonic

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency mnemonic

Chemokines (chemoattractants) mnemonic

Here is something for chemoattractants..

Phagocytic cells are in blood vessels which is like street of city
Now they want to go in tissues which is like a dark forest

Somebody suggested phagocytic cells that if you want to go,
"Before (B4) going, make sure you can See five (C5a) clearly In Light (IL8) and form peptides (N-formyl peptides)"

So it is B4, C5a, IL8, N-formyl peptides.


HLA, MHC & CD T cell mnemonic

Hello everyone!
Time for another immmunology mnemonic =D

MHC class I:
CD8+ T-cells recognize MHC I.
It takes only 1 stroke of the pen to write “8

The genes have only one alphabet. (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C)

CD8 x MHC1 = 8
CD8+ are Cytotoxic T cells because "EighT" has T for "Toxic"

All cells have one nucleus, so all nucleated cells have class I MHC.

MHC I has one chain (alpha chain) & one microglobulin (Beta 2 microglobulin).

Interleukin 2 mnemonic

Another Interleukin mnemonic!
You're a T cell
& you see a second T cell looking just like you :O

You: "Woahh.. You're.. You are my friggin' clone!!"
Clone T cell: "Yeah.. IL - 2 made me"

That's all!

Shout out to Microbiology Made Easy for sharing the T lymphocyte comic character.. Thank you so much :)


Saturday, March 23, 2013

Hematopoietic stem cell differentiation mnemonic

Do you know that lymphoid and myeloid cells come from the same precursor?
Yes! It is the multipotent stem cell which differentiates into either a lymphoid or a myeloid stem cell
So how they know what to differentiate into?
Interleukins tell em what to do!

IL-7 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent (pluripotent) hematopoietic stem cells into lymphoid progenitor cells
IL-3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent (pluripotent) hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells

How do I remember that? @_@

Here's a mnemonic just for you :*

Hematopoietic stem cell differentiation mnemonic

That's all! ^________^

"Why can't you ever see what's in front of you.." ;)