Sunday, February 2, 2020

Corona virus

Corona virus:
A) Virology:
1) Coronaviruses are classified as a family within the Nidovirales order, viruses that replicate using a nested set of mRNAs. The coronavirus subfamily is further classified into four genera: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta coronaviruses. 
2) Positive mRNA strand virus. It is largest known RNA strand.

B) Routes of transmission — Respiratory coronaviruses probably spread in a fashion similar to that of rhinoviruses, via direct contact with infected secretions or large aerosol droplets. Immunity develops soon after infection but wanes gradually over time.

C) Clinical Manifestation:
Characterized by
1) Upper respiratory tract infections
2) Acute otitis media
3) Pneumonia
4) Temporarily linked to asthma attacks in both adults and children
5) The idea that coronaviruses produce diarrhea in humans is intriguing because of their clear intestinal pathogenicity in animals
6) Gastrointestinal manifestations -diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain.
7) There is one reported case of encephalitis due to corona virus
8)Also seen in association with Kawasaki disease.

D) Diagnosis:
Until recently, no sensitive, rapid method existed to detect all of the known human coronavirus strains. Rapid techniques that can be used to detect coronaviruses from nasopharyngeal samples include reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence antigen detection assays.

E) Treatment:
1) There is currently no treatment recommended for coronavirus infections except for supportive care as needed
2) Chloroquine has shown some activity against cultured cells.

F)Prevention:
1) Preventive measures are the same as for rhinovirus infections, which consist of handwashing and the careful disposal of materials infected with nasal secretions. Several antiseptic/disinfectant solutions used commonly in hospitals and households, including chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride, and cetrimide/chlorhexidine, have been shown to be ineffective against coronaviruses

That's it!

Source: Up-to-date.



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