Showing posts with label Mnemonics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mnemonics. Show all posts

Saturday, September 25, 2021

Cardiovascular drugs that can cause digoxin toxicity

A number of cardiovascular drugs predispose patients to digoxin toxicity, including verapamil, quinidine, and amiodarone. The dosage of digoxin must be reduced if given concomitantly with these drugs. The presumed mechanism underlying this interaction involves the ability of these drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter.

Mnemonic: These drugs cause you to go whack! VAQ - Verapamil, Amiodarone, Quinidine

Other drugs to keep in mind are Diltiazem, Spironolactone, Flecainide.

Mnemonic by Huzefa Bhopalwala


Waldorff S, Hansen PB, Egeblad H, Berning J, Buch J, Kjaergård H, Steiness E. Interactions between digoxin and potassium-sparing diuretics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 Apr;33(4):418-23. doi: 10.1038/clpt.1983.56. PMID: 6831820.

Andrejak M, Hary L, Andrejak MT, Lesbre JP. Diltiazem increases steady state digoxin serum levels in patients with cardiac disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Dec;27(12):967-70. doi: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.1987.tb05598.x. PMID: 3437068.

Lewis GP, Holtzman JL. Interaction of flecainide with digoxin and propranolol. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Feb 27;53(5):52B-57B. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(84)90502-2. PMID: 6695818.


Saturday, September 18, 2021

SYNTAX score mnemonic

In the SYNTAX (Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial, patients with 3-vessel and left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) had lower 5-year rates of death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or unplanned revascularization.

Thursday, July 22, 2021

Babeosis mnemonic

This is how I remember babeosis is associated with Maltese cross appearance.

You know you love me, xoxo, gossip girl!


Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Cluster Headache

 Is the cluster headache giving you a headache?

Here's an easy way to remember it.

C-Conjunctival congestion



S-same time, periodicity

T-Tearing of conjunctiva

E-Excess autonomic activity


These clinical features help us to differentiate cluster headache from other types of unilateral headaches.

Treatment includes

1. 100% Oxygen at 10-12L/min for 15-20 mins

2.Sumitriptan 6mg S/c

3. Sumitriptan 20mg and Zolmitriptan 5mg nasal spray


That's it folks!

Happy studying!

Dr. ShilPill

Thursday, May 27, 2021

Immunofluorescence patterns in glomerular diseases notes and mnemonics

Immunopathologic patterns of immunoglobulins (Igs) and/or complement components deposited in glomerular diseases notes and mnemonics

Linear deposition:
Anti-GBM disease (mainly IgG)
unspecifically IgG in diabetes mellitus

Granular deposition: 
membranoproliferative GN
post-infectious GN
membranous GN
IgA, IgM, C1q, C3

Pauci immune deposition:
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener) PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)
Microscopic polyangiitis MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA


Treatment options for latent tuberculosis mnemonic

Treatment options for latent tuberculosis 

6 or 9 months of isoniazid 

3 months of isoniazid plus rifapentine, given once weekly

4 months of rifampin, given daily

3 months of isoniazid plus rifampin, given daily

That's all!

Sunday, May 23, 2021

Ehler-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) - High yield only

Hi! So let's learn EDS together. I've tabled a list of high-yield points of all the types of EDS. It requires little bit of revision but once you get a pictorial familiarity you should be able to recall them all. 

Have fun!

So, how to remember?

Step 1. Divide the table into 2 halves. Sl no. 1,2,3 have in common a lot of features:
  • They are all Autosomal Dominant. 
  • They have common Clinical features - skin HYPERelasticity, joint HYPERmobility and HYPER (easy) bruising. 
  • Go serially, Classical has the first 2, Type I and II and HYPERmobile is III and lastly Vascular is type I
  • Vascular type has additionally - arterial & uterine rupture.
Step 2. Now the second section Sl no. 4,5,6
  • EDS types with enzyme defects are Autosomal Recessive. So, 4 and 6 are AR. 
  • Kyphoscoliotic EDS is Type VI (K rearranged is a V and I)
  • For the last 2, mnemonic is ABCD😛 Arthrochalasia VII a, b and VII c is Dermatosparaxis.
  • KyphoSCOLIOTIC EDS - defective lysyl hydroxylase (=> abnormal cross linking of collagen or KOLLAGEN => think of bones 🦴 => congenital SCOLIOSIS)
  • ARTHROchalasia is COL IA (1st letter is A) and hence presents with severe JOINT hyper mobility.
  • DERMATospARaxis is AR and a defective Procollagen-N-peptidase and presents with CUTIS laxa. (Cuties are Pros ;)

Step 2. For the Gene types, come down in descending order: 5 4 3 2 1

Step 3. Remember Type V - DOEST NOT EXIST. 

Step 4. Revise again 😉

That's it! Stay safe 🌸
- Anagha :)

Tuesday, May 18, 2021

Human herpes viruses (HHV) types mnemonic

Human herpes viruses mnemonic... In case you get them mixed up...



(3 or more of the following : diagnosis of Metabolic syndrome)

Blood Pressure >/=130/85mmHg

Abdominal obesity ( waist circumference) > 40 inches in males; >35 inches in females

Triglycerides >/=150 mg/dl

HDL cholesterol < 40mg/dl in males; < 50mg/dl in females

Fasting blood Sugars >/=100mg/dl

Hope this helps:)

- Padma Sri Katikaneni

Monday, May 17, 2021


SITE OF METASTASIS                              PRIMARY TUMOUR 

BRAIN                                                                    Lots of Bad Stuff Kill microGlia
                                                                                 Lung, Breast, Skin (melanoma), Kidney, GI(colon)

LIVER                                                                     Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Big Liver   
                                                                                 Colon, Stomach, Pancreas, Breast, Lung 

BONE                                                                      Permanently Relocated Tumours Like Bones
                                                                                 Prostate, Renal, Thyroid, Lungs, Breast



        (Follicular carcinoma thyroid, Choriocarcinoma, Renal cell carcinoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma)

Hope these mnemonics help!

Feel free to add any more fun mnemonics :)

- Padma Sri Katikaneni

Thursday, May 13, 2021

Glomerulonephritis associated with infectious diseases mnemonic

Hepatitis B: Membranous glomerulonephritis
Hepatitis C: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
HIV: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

By IkaN

Wednesday, May 12, 2021

Kartagener syndrome mnemonic


Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dysfunction, aka immotile cilia syndrome) mnemonic :-

Tuesday, May 11, 2021

Toxoplasmosis classic triad mnemonic


Toxoplasmosis classic triad in neonates mnemonic: CATS 

- CAlcifications (intracranial)

- Tension hydrocephalus

- See (Chorioretinitis)

Also, check out this video mnemonic by IkaN

- Jaskunwar Singh

Saturday, May 8, 2021

Rigler's triad mnemonic


Rigler's triad in gall stone ileus mnemonic:


Belimumab mnemonic

What is belimumab?

Belimumab is a  monoclonal antibody directed against soluble B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS).

Belimumab is used in the treatment of? 
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Mnemonic: Belly Selly SLE (rhymes! sing it enough times and you will never forget)

At present, belimumab is indicated as add-on therapy in adults with active, antinuclear antibody or anti-dsDNA-positive SLE with a high degree of disease activity in the skin and/or musculoskeletal systems that remain moderately to severely active despite optimized standard immunosuppression. 

Patients with severe lupus nephritis or active CNS lupus are not the candidates for belimumab.

That's all!

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) dosing for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation mnemonic

Hi everyone!

Here are some DOAC dosing mnemonics for atrial fibrillation! 

RivarOxaban: Once daily
Apixaban: Twice daily 
Dabigatran: Twice daily
EdOxaban: Once daily

Mnemonic: Drugs with O have Once-daily dosing. 

Rivaroxaban: 20 mg once daily with the evening meal (creatinine clearance [CrCl] >50 mL/minute); or 15 mg once daily with the evening meal (CrCl ≤50 mL/minute).
Mnemonic: R without the straight line | looks like 2 to me for 20 mg!

Apixaban: 5 mg twice daily (CrCl >50 mL/minute); or 2.5 mg twice daily for those with any two of the following: age ≥80 years, body weight ≤60 kg, or serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL.
Mnemonic: Apixa has 5 letters for 5 mg!

Dabigatran: 110 mg BID or 150 mg BID (CrCl >30 mL/minute).
European labeling suggests dose reduction in patients older than 75 years (eg, 150 mg orally once per day or 110 mg orally twice per day).

Edoxaban: 30 mg (weight ≤60 kg) or 60 mg (weight >60 kg) orally once daily.

That's all!

Remember that the dosing varies for VTE treatment and prophylaxis so do not apply these mnemonics for VTE.


Saturday, April 17, 2021

Crescent-shaped gametocytes in P. falciparum malaria

The most definitive finding of P. falciparum that can be seen in a blood smear when viewed under a microscope is the shape of the gametocytes.

Here is my mnemonic for it.

Sunday, February 28, 2021

Essential tremor - a mnemonic.

Do you often forget the features of 'essential tremor'? Well shake no more, 'coz here's a mnemonic that will straighten things up for ya!

Wednesday, January 20, 2021

Anti-epileptics in pregnancy mnemonic

 The choice of antiepileptic drugs for women with epilepsy of childbearing age who are planning a pregnancy are