Showing posts with label Orthopaedics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Orthopaedics. Show all posts

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Flexion Tear Drop Fracture

Hello guys!

Here's a short description on Flexion Tear Drop Fracture and its radiological findings.
It typically occurs from severe flexion and compression forces, most commonly at C5-C6 (diving head first, motor vehicle collision deceleration).

Radiographic features -

1. Sagittal fracture through the vertebral body.
2. Fracture of the anteroinferior vertebral body (Tear Drop Sign)
3. Loss of anterior height of the vertebral body -Cervical kyphosis.
4. Posterior cervical displacement above the level of injury.
5. Widening of interspinous processes.
6. Intervertebral disc space narrowing.
7. Disruption of the spinolaminar line.
8. Vertebral body rotation with an AP diameter that appears smaller than on other levels.
9. Anterior dislocation of the facet joints.

That's all! 

Thank you.
MD Mobarak Hussain (Maahii) 

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Spine abnormalities in neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disease.There are 3 types of neurofibromatosis. Type 1 is more common among all and is characterized by tumors that develop along nervous system.

This post deals with spinal abnormalities that occur in type 1 neurofibromatosis.

Due to presence of multiple neurofibromas of spinal nerves, there is increased CSF pressure, this causes protrusion of duramater, this ballooned sac containing cerebrospinal fluid is known as dural ectasia.

This condition may result in pain in the back and limbs, bladder control problems, and numbness in severe cases.
Neurofibromatosis may cause tumors around the spinal cord. Scoliosis, an irregular side curvature of the spine from left to right, and kyphosis, or a rounded or forward angulated back, occur together or separately in about one in five people with neurofibromatosis type 1.

Children with neurofibromatosis type I develop one of two forms of scoliosis, dystrophic or non- dystrophic scoliosis. Non-dystrophic type is similar to ' typical ' scoliosis called as adult idiopathic scoliosis.

Dystrophic scoliosis, on the other hand, is a form of scoliosis that occurs due to bony changes related to neurofibromas affecting the spine. Dystrophic scoliosis is identified by looking for specific features on X-rays of the spine. For patients and their families, dystrophic scoliosis is known as a more severe form of scoliosis. It may also occur with abnormally thin ribs, weakened vertebral bones, and severe spinal curvatures including kyphosis and rotational deformities and is often associated with dural ectasia.

Treatment for scoliosis due to neurofibromatosis is challenging, particularly when dystrophic scoliosis is present. Effective treatment requires the knowledge and skill of an experienced orthopedic surgeon who specializes in scoliosis treatment.

Thanks for reading.

Madhuri Reddy

Friday, June 30, 2017

Torn meniscus and inability to extend the knee

Doubt: Why does torn meniscus present with inability to extend the knee? I don't understand the anatomy correlation.

If there is complete tear, the meniscus (a piece of it) gets dislodged. It gets stuck in the knee joint.

This causes:
Inability to extend the knee.
Pain on extension of the knee.

Why is it called "bucket handle"?

A bucket handle meniscus tear represents a complete tear of the mensicus support or the ligament that holds the meniscus in place. This allows the meniscus to flop over like the handle on a bucket.  When the meniscus flips over it becomes stuck in the middle of the knee joint, you lose the ability to fully straighten the knee then you have a “locked knee”.

Explained by Dr. Mustufa Poonawala

The meaning of valgus (with doubt + mnemonic)

Meaning of valgus: A deformity involving oblique displacement of part of a limb away from the midline.

Doubt: Why is genu valgum knock knees? The knees (genu) are displaced towards the midline!

Answer: It's not the knees we consider during the deformity... It's the relationship of distal part with the proximal part at a joint.

Mnemonic: L in vaLgum is for Lateral displacement.

(Conversely, varuM is medial displacement.)

That's all!
Hate the inaccurate naming.

Friday, May 26, 2017

Ewing's Sarcoma- A review.

Hello everybody!

Let's review a few important points on Ewing's sarcoma.

Ewing sarcoma is one of the small, round cell lesions of bone
Second most common malignant bone tumor in children (after osteosarcoma)
Common in males than females.
Occurs between the ages of 5-30 years.

Arise in medullary cavity, usually of long bones in the lower extremities. Commonly involves metadiaphysis of long bones.
Most commonly occurs in long bones and pelvis but they can occur in virtually any bone.

Clinical Findings:
Most common symptoms are localized pain and swelling.
Additional symptoms:
Weight loss
Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate 

Imaging Findings:
Most lesions are visible on conventional radiographs
However, their degree of spread is better evaluated with MRI

Common manifestations on conventional radiography include
1)Poorly marginated, lytic, destructive lesion
2)Permeative (small holes) or moth-eaten (mottled) appearance
3)Rarely, they can be sclerotic,Soft tissue mass or infiltration is common
4)Soft tissue mass may occur without destruction of cortex.Soft tissue mass may produce saucerization (scalloped depression in cortex)
5)Periosteal reaction is common
6)Lamellated - onion-skinning due to successive layers of periosteal development
7)Sunburst or spiculated - hair-on-end appearance when new bone is laid down perpendicular to cortex along Sharpey’s fibers.
8)Codman’s triangle - formed between elevated periosteum with central destruction of cortex
9)Osteosclerosis may be present secondary to reactive bone formation

Prognosis:60-75% five-year survival.

Treatment:Systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment with surgery and/or radiotherapy playing a role depending of the location and size of the tumour.

Hope this was useful.
Let's Learn Together!

Tuesday, May 16, 2017

Bankart's and Hill Sach's lesion mnemonic

These two lesions occuring in relation with shoulder dislocation can stump someone if asked in an MCQ as to which lesion is specifically related to which structure.

Remember the sentence-

" Sacks of money are deposited in a bank"

In a similar way, the head of humerus is 'deposited' (articulates within) the glenoid cavity.

Hill Sach's lesion occurs on the humeral head.
Bankart's lesion occurs on the anterior glenoid labrum.

Now, how to remember whether is it the anterior or the posterior labrum?
Remember that anterior dislocation of the humeral head is the commonest occurence. That will leave no confusion.

That's all!

-Sushrut Dongargaonkar

Sunday, May 14, 2017

Monteggia and Galeazzi fracture mnemonic

One can get confused on hours end as to what fracture is related to what bone. Hope this mnemonic comes in handy!

1. MUFC( Manchester united fan club)

- Monteggia upper ulnar fracture
With radial head dislocation

2. GFR low(Glomerular filtration rate)

- Galeazzi fracture radial, lower
With distal radio ulnar subluxation

That's all!

-Sushrut Dongargaonkar

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Upper limb joints types mnemonic

Hey Awesomites

From proximal to distal, the joints and its types are:

Shoulder joint - Ball and socket type
Elbow joint - Hinge joint
Radio carpal ( wrist ) joint - Ellipsoidal and biaxial type
Carpo metacarpal joint - Saddle joint
Metacarpo phalyngeal joint - Ellipsoidal ( condylar ) joint
Interphalyngeal joint - Hinge joint

Mnemonic to remember the types, from proximal to distal : BaSu ( Ball and Socket ) writes Hindi ( hinge ) in elliptics ( Ellipsoidal ) but is sadly (Saddle ) condemned ( Condylar ) without hinges .

Thats all
- Jaskunwar Singh

Submission ( notes and mnemonic ) by Mayank Kesharwani - ( PS: This is a Hindi Urdu mnemonic )
Bhaiya Hum ESE Hain

Bhaiya - Ball and Socket joint
Hum - Hinge joint
E - Ellipsoidal
S - Saddle
E - Ellipsoidal
Hain - Hinge

Thanks Mayank for sharing :)

Submissions: Rolando fracture mnemonic


TATA truck ROLLS on wheels

The shape of this fracrure is T- shaped or Y ( bent- T ) shaped, which resembles the sign of the Tata motors truck, and Roll is for "Rolando fracture"

Mnemonic submitted by Mayank Kesharwani
Diagram by Jaskunwar Singh 

Monday, April 17, 2017

Mnemonico diagnostico : Vitamin D deficient Rickets

Hey Awesomites

The clinical features specific for Rickets due to vitamin D deficiency are : Vit D BHP RICKETS

V - Visceroptosis ( due to ligament laxity )
D - DEXA scan / low bone Density
B - Bossing of skull
H - Harrison's groove
P - Ping pong ball sensation
R - Rachitic rosary
I - Iron deficiency and other anemias
C - Coxa vara
K - Kyphosis
E - Eruption of teeth ( delayed )
T - Thoracolumbar ( Lordosis )
S - Sternum and ribs protrusion ( Pigeon chest )

Thats all
- Jaskunwar Singh

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Fact of the day: Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis

Chronic PPI usage is associated with an increase occurrence of bone fractures, at present, the likely mechanism of this affect, is not at all clear.

The assumed mechanism is that long-term PPI use leads to decreased intestinal absorption of calcium resulting in negative calcium balance, increased osteoporosis, development of secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone loss and increased fractures.

An acidic environment in the stomach facilitates the release of ionzed calcium from insoluble calcium salts, and the calcium solubilization is thought to be important for calcium absorption. 

That's all!
Happy studying!

Friday, February 24, 2017

Monday, February 13, 2017

Soap bubble appearance on X ray:Differential diagnosis

Hello everyone!
I always find X rays quite confusing especially when they appear same.
It's a short post about differentiating bone tumors.

Soap bubble appearance on X ray is expansile, eccentric vaguely trabeculated space having thin sharp defined sclerotic margins.
Mostly seen in bone tumors and other bone lesions.
On X ray they all appear same, only way to differentiate them is to know their location and other associated factors.
Commonly seen in
1) Aneurysmal bone cysts-
  Location of ABC is Metaphysis.
It occurs in younger age group i.e less
than 20 years. So the X ray of such
patient will have non fused and 
immature bone.
Preferred sites are long bones of upper and lower limb, especially femur.

2) Giant cell tumor(osteoclastoma) -
Location of GCT is epiphysis
Here the prevalent age group is 20-40, which means an adult sketetal structure.
While the preferred sites are same like ABC.
So if one see epiphyseal lesion with soap bubble appearance in mature bone, it has to be Giant cell tumor.
GCT presents with other classical signs of Egg shell crackling on palpitations.
Giant cells on histology.
Which are NOT the tumor cells. So its one of the example of misnomers. They are meant to misguide you.

Thats it :)
Stay awesome


Saturday, January 28, 2017

Colles' fracture

Hey Awesomites! Today I am gonna talk about Colles' fracture (a short post).

"It is an extra-articular fracture of the distal metaphyseal region of the Radius (at its cortico-cancellous junction) with dorsal impaction and angulation, caused due to a fall on outstretched hand (FOOSH) resulting in displacement of the fractured part of bone distally as well as radially."

Fall on outstretched hand resulting in displacements seen in Colles' fracture
Note that there is dorsal angulation and impaction in Colles' fracture as opposed to volar angulation in Smith's fracture, when seen in X-ray (AP and lateral views).

Displacements seen in Colles' fracture mnemonic- SLID
- Supination
- Lateral shift and tilt
- Impaction of bone fragments
- Dorsal shift and tilt.

Clinical features: mnemonicise the features here.

Dinner Fork deformity- Normally the styloid process of radius is at a lower level than the ulnar styloid. In Colles' fracture, the dorsal displacement and impaction of Radius results in shortening of the bone and places the radial styloid at the same level or a little higher than the ulnar styloid. Hence the patient presents with such a deformity resembling a dinner fork.

Thats all
- Jaskunwar Singh

Friday, January 27, 2017

Galeazzi fracture- dislocation

This is a counterpart of Monteggia fracture- dislocation.
It also has two components: Fracture of distal- third of Radius and dislocation of the distal radio- ulnar joint. Mnemonicise it from here.

The mechanism of injury is the same as in Monteggia fracture and dislocation (fall on an outstretched arm causes an axial load on a hyperpronated forearm; Hyperpronation injury). The more distal the fracture, greater are the problems encountered in wrist and hand movements and more are the deforming forces that cause muscular and soft- tissue injuries.

A must to mention here is about Anterior Interosseous nerve (AIN) palsy and Wrist drop.

A patient with Galeazzi fracture and dislocation may present with the AIN palsy (while PIN is common in case of Monteggia fracture and dislocation) that may cause paralysis of flexor policis longus and flexor digitorum profundus thus resulting in a loss of pinch mechanism between thumb and index finger.

Wrist drop may also be a presenting complaint that results from an injury to the radial nerve and also due to weakness of brachioradialis and extension of wrist and thumb. The patient cannot bear the weight of the hand.

Diagnosis:- X- rays of forearm (AP and lateral view)

Treatment:- Complete reduction and fixation is important to restore the functions of limb. Galeazzi fracture and dislocation is best treated with Open Reduction and Internal fixation (ORIF). In children, closed reduction is the procedure of choice due to skeletal immaturity.

Monteggia fracture- dislocation

Monteggia fracture- dislocation has two components- fracture of upper- third part of ulna (bone of medial side) and simultaneous dislocation of proximal part (the head) of Radius. Check out the mnemonic to memorise it here.

The injury is caused by a fall on an outstretched hand with the forearm forced into excessive prone position (hyperpronation injury).

Types of Monteggia fracture and dislocation (Bado's classification) :-
Type I- Extension type- Angulation of proximal part of ulna anteriorly and dislocation of the head of Radius anteriorly. This type is seen in 60% patients.
Bado type I lesion (most common)
(Note- Posterior Interosseous nerve may get paralysed in Monteggia fracture and dislocation that is a result of anterior radial head dislocation in type I of Bado, unless reduced by manual pressure).

Type II- Flexion type- Fracture of proximal part of ulna and posterior dislocation of radial head.
Type III- Lateral type- Fracture of ulnar metaphysis and dislocation of head of Radius laterally.
Type IV Combined type Fracture of ulnar as well as radial shafts with dislocation of radial head anteriorly.

Diagnosis of Monteggia fracture and dislocation:- Check for both components- the fracture as well as displacement coz there could be an isolated fracture of ulna as due to nightstick injury.
X- rays of the forearm (Antero-posterior and lateral view) are diagnostic.

Treatment- Conservative management in children with closed reduction (resetting of bones and casting) accompanies the high risk of displacement thus causing malunion.
Standard treatment procedure in Monteggia fracture and dislocation is Osteosynthesis of the ulnar shaft (Open Reduction and Internal fixation) in children as well as adults to improve stability of the radio-ulnar joint and mobilise so as to prevent stiffness.

Thats all
- Jaskunwar Singh

Friday, January 13, 2017

Monteggia vs Galeazzi fracture mnemonic

Hey Awesomites

While studying the Monteggia and Galeazzi fracture and dislocation today, I googled and came up with a mnemonic. GRUesome MURder helps us remember which bone is fractured and which one is dislocated.

G: Galeazzi
R: Radial fracture (lower- third)
U: Ulnar dislocation

M: Monteggia
U: Ulnar fracture (upper- third)
R: Radial dislocation

Also in Monteggia fracture, bone of medial side is involved.

Thats all
- Jaskunwar Singh

Saturday, December 10, 2016

Transient synovitis vs septic arthritis


In this post, I'll talk on how to to differentiate transient synovitis from septic arthritis.

Transient arthritis is non specific inflammation of the synovium, related to infection or trauma.

Septic arthritis is bacterial infection of the synovium of the joint.

Modified Kochers criteria can help distinguish the two.

Fever > 38.5
ESR > 40 mm/hr
WBC > 12,000 cells/mL
CRP > 20 mg/dL
Inability to bear weight on the affected limb

More the criteria, more likely the child has septic arthritis.

Here's a mnemonic for modified Kochers criteria: FEW Can Bear Kocher!

Fever, ESR, WBC, CRP, weight bearing.

Acute transient synovitis is the most common cause of painful hip in a child younger than 10 years. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and can mimic Osteoarthritis, Legg Calve Perthes disease, SCFE.

Treatment: Rest, anti inflammatory agents.

That's all!

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Supracondylar fracture of the humerus

Supracondylar fracture of the humerus

- Transverse fracture of the distal part of the humerus.
- Bruises of anterior elbow (Proximal fragments buttons through the brachialis muscle)
- Posterior fat pad sign is seen in non displaced fracture of the humerus.

IMPORTANT: Assess radial and ulnar pulses because brachial artery can be compromised.

That's all!