Sunday, May 31, 2015

Fallopian tube facts and mnemonics

Hello! I read some facts about the fallopian tube so I'll be sharing it with you today!

What part of the fallopian tube does fertilization occur?
Ampulla of the fallopian tube is the most common site for fertilization.

Sometimes, the embryo isn't transported to the uterus by the cilia, causing ectopic pregnancy. This is why, ampulla of the fallopian tube is the most common site of ectopic pregnancy.

How do I remember this? Mnemonic!

Another random fact to remember is, isthmus is most common site of rupture of ectopic pregnancies because it is inflexible and has a thick muscularis.

Mnemonic: ISTHMUS

That's all!

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Meckel Gruber syndrome mnemonic

Hello everyone!

We are going to learn about Meckel Gruber syndrome today!

It's an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by GRUBEP!

G: ambiguous Genitalia
R: Renal dysplasia
U: Ureteric hypoplasia
B: Bladder hypoplasia
E: Encephalocele
P: Polydactyly
Pancreatic dysplasia

That's all!

There is nothing free except the grace of God.


Remembering Apgar scoring.

Hello awesomites, finding it difficult to remember the components of Apgar score? Well, I think grouping them makes it easy-

1. The heart and lungs lie close hence,  you can group 'heart rate' and 'respiratory effort' together.

2. Reflexes are carried out none other than muscles, hence 'muscle tone' and 'reflex irritability' or 'reflex response' go into the second group.

3. Color, now it is easy to remember.

That's all!

Sunday, May 24, 2015

Study group discussion: CPS 1 and CPS 2

Today's discussion is about Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase!

What are differences between CPS 1 and CPS 2?

CPS 1 works in the urea cycle.
CPS 2 in pyramidine synthesis.

CPS 1 is mitochondrial.
CPS 2 is cytosolic.

(Medicowesome mnemonic: Two is cys-two-lic)

The source of nitrogen for CPS 1 is ammonia.
For CPS 2, it is the amide group of glutamine.

N acetyl glutamate is activator for CPS 1.
ATP is activator for CPS 2.

Woah that's a lot of points I didn't know about!

Study group discussion: Leucine, tryptophan and niacin

Which essential amino acid interferes with the conversion of which another essential amino acid into niacin?


In shorghum or jowar, high leucine content inhibits conversion of tryptophan into niacin active form.

Any one knows the mechanism?

Because it inhibits quinolinate phopshoribosyl transferase.

Friday, May 22, 2015

Hormonal changes during menopause mnemonic

Short post for the day! :)

- Estrogen
- Progesterone
- Inhibin
levels Fall during menopause.

Monday, May 18, 2015

Estrogen and osteoporosis

Lack of estrogen causes a decrease in osteoprotegerin.

Osteoprotegerin (OPG), also known as osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), is a cytokine and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily.

Osteoprotegerin inhibits the differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts and also regulates the resorption of osteoclasts.
Mnemonic: Osteoprotegerin protects bone (By preventing macrophage differentiation into osteoclasts.)

Osteoprotegerin, a RANK homolog, works by binding to the RANK-ligand on Osteoblast/Stromal cells, thus blocking the RANK-RANK lingand interaction between Osteoblast/Stromal cells and Osteoclast precursors. This has the effect of inhibiting the differentiation of the Osteoclast Precursor into a mature Osteoclast.
Mnemonic: Osteoprotegerin ranks high in protecting bones.

So, estrogen kinda inhibits the osteoclasts which causes osteoporosis is the moral of the story?


Extra: Recombinant human osteoprotegerin specifically acts on bone, increasing bone mineral density and bone volume. Osteoprotegerin has been used experimentally to decrease bone resorption in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and in patients with lytic bone metastases.

That's all!


Friday, May 15, 2015

Submissions: Chagas disease notes

Here are some beautifully presented points on Chagas disease written by Jolhf Mathai Koshy.

I didn't know about Romanas sign and Chagomas.

The MEGA mnemonic for cardiomegaly, splenomegaly, megaeosophagus and megacolon is brilliant.

Now, my brain is swollen up with sweet information! Thanks a lot, Jolhf!


Related post: Study group discussion on Chagas disease

Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Whipples disease mnemonic

Mini post of the day!

Whipples disease responds to antibiotics like ceftriaxone and TMP-SMX.
"Whip Whipples with antibiotics."

W: Caused by T. Whippleii
Hip: Reminds me of arthralgias
P: For PAS positive macrophages
L: Lymphadenopathy
E: Eye findings

Friday, May 8, 2015

Celiac disease mnemonic

Hello. Something about celiac disease today!

"In celiac disease, the gut is cealed (sealed) with GLUe."

Tuesday, May 5, 2015

Study group discussion: Kimmelstiel-Wilson in medicine

Review - How do KW lesions, disease and syndrome differ from each other?

KW lesions refer to nodular glomerulosclerosis - the KW nodules

KW syndrome is nephrotic syndrome developing due to the lesions.

KW disease refers to any other manifestations occurring due to the lesions.

Any other manifestations like?

Manifestations of glomerulonephropathy. I guess hematuria, anasarca, uremia and others.

Study group discussion: Questions on tuberculosis

20 year old girl with a TB contact history comes to OPD with complaint of hemoptysis. Her TST is 20mm and her smear & culture is positive for mycobacterium TB.

Now some questions related to pulmonary TB!

What is brocks syndrome?

When the enlarging hilar lymph node causes collapse of bronchi, leading to bronchiectasis is called Brocks syndrome. Specially right middle lobe.

What do you exactly mean by post primary tuberculosis?

Post primary refers to TB that occurs few weeks after primary TB when the immunity has developed.

Chemoprophylaxis with which drug should be prescribed if a patient is gonna undergo some immunity wrecking thing like eg, gonna take long term steroids and their CXR shows evidence of previous TB?


Breech mnemonic


So today, I forgot the types of breech.

And that's why, I made a illustration with eh mnemonic.

There are two types of full breech:
- Complete breech
- Frank breech

There are many types of incomplete breech:
- Footling
- Kneeling

That's all!


Friday, May 1, 2015

Study group discussion: Kochs contact

Question: Definition of Koch's contact!

Answers, comments posted on the group -

1. Should have:
Sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis or sputum negative culture positive pulmonary TB

2. Person who is open case of Koch, person who just started AKT and person who completed AKT within 2 years.


It was my pediatrics viva question. I didn't know the answer back then! Thanks!

The contact should be a member of the household or be frequenting regularly.

The first identified case in a household is called as index case.