Monday, February 29, 2016

Saturday, February 27, 2016

Drugs causing SIADH mnemonic


Because ADH makes you retain water, the mnemonic goes: "SIADH Causes Poor Voiding"

S: SSRIs (Sertaline)
I: Indomethacin (Analgesics)
A: Antidepressants (Tricyclics)
D: Diuretics (Thiazides)
H: Hello :D

Study group discussion: GI hemorrhage and urea

Why does GI haemorrhage increase serum urea?

Any patient with GI bleeding will have an increased serum urea.

Urea is an end product of protein metabolism. Digested blood contains loads of proteins so it's as good as having a meal rich in proteins. Blood proteins include hemoglobin, Immunoglobulins, etc.

Glucose in pleural fluid analysis

Hi :)

A low pleural fluid glucose concentration (less than 60 mg/dL, or a pleural fluid/serum glucose ratio less than 0.5) narrows the differential diagnosis of the exudate.

Causes of low glucose in pleural fluid include:

Symptoms of Legionella pneumonia mnemonic

Happy weekend everyone!

The mnemonic for Legionella is in the word itself - LEGIONella.

L: Lungs - Atypical pneumonia.
Relatively nonproductive cough
Pleuritic or non pleuritic chest pain
Confluent or patchy infiltrates on x-ray
Random fact: Interstitial infiltrates aren't seen often like in other atypical pneumonias.

COPD: Tips for step 2 CK and rounds

Hello! I have a pulmonary rotation going on and I thought I'd shed light on management of COPD :D

During rotations, you may be asked what you want to do for the patient. I have written "Plan" for what you might want to answer to impress your attending. I've included a few common brand names too :)

Inhalers: Remember inhalers only improve symptoms and have no mortality benefit and do not affect the progression of the disease.

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Submissions: Anticoagulants mnemonic

This awesome mnemonic on Anticoagulants was submitted by Dr Vinayak Hiremath.

Hidden bleeds

So this is what my fellow asked me today: Say, there is a patient whose hemoglobin is dropping, dropping, dropping and he has barely any significant signs or symptoms.. Besides the GI tract, where else can you have a significant bleed which can be hidden? There are three such places.

Guess before you read the answer! :D

Sunday, February 21, 2016

In my words: Diagnosing a PE

I was reading about Pulmonary Embolism for USMLE Step 2 CK and started typing notes for myself to refer. I thought I'd upload it for you guys to read as well.

Disclaimer: I am talking to myself in the blog. I hope it makes sense.

I'll be talking about two scenarios -
High pretest probability scenario: Dude who sat in a 24 hour flight, smokes a lot, is taking OCP's, got his hip replaced and can't move at all.
Low pretest probability scenario: Dude who is dyspneic, hypoxic and has a normal chest x-ray.

Let's start with scenario #1 - The high pretest probability:

If there's a high index of suspicion and a treatment option is given in the options, choose the treatment one because you don't want to waste time in imaging.

If there's a high index of suspicion and a treatment option is not given in the options, they want you to choose a diagnostic modality. The "next best step" in the diagnosis. What do you choose?

Friday, February 19, 2016

Why does oxygen cause hypercapnia in COPD?

In medical school, we learnt that oxygen administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) induces hypercapnia through the 'hypoxic drive' mechanism. I had talked about this in my previous blog here.

Today, I found out that it is a myth. Well, sort of. It has a minor role. At least, in COPD.
Studies found out that the minute ventilation had a limited effect on PaCO2 :/

So... What caused the CO2 increase then?

Tuesday, February 16, 2016

How would you look upside down?

Hey everyone!

I attended a conference of aging of the face two weeks back. Did you know that aging of the face can be related to gravity? Yep it is.

Well, here's what's REALLY interesting: To reinforce this theory, they found out that inversion photographs of aging patients (either in a supine or Trendelenburg position) demonstrate an appearance consistent with that of photographs taken approximately 10–15 years prior.

Here's a picture:

Antipseudomonal antibiotics mnemonic

Hope you're having a good day!

"CP cover Crazy Pseudomonas."

Cephalosporins (Like Ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone, cefpirome)
Ciprofloxacin (Fluoroquinolones)
Carbapenems (Meropenem, Doripenem)
Polymyxin B
Piperacillin tazobactam (Anti pseudomonal penicillins)

I also remember that antibiotics that have the letters "AZ" cover Pseudomonas.

Monday, February 15, 2016

Organisms covered by Azithromycin mnemonic

Today, during rounds, I was asked which organisms does Azithromycin cover that ceftriaxone doesn't and I kinda blanked out :(

PS: They were talking in context to community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and so does this post.
So.. Mnemonic!

Monday, February 8, 2016

Phagocytes, Monocytes, Macrophages, Histiocytes?! What's the difference between them?

Hey guys!

If you've always found it difficult to make a distinction between those terms about wha they mean then this post is for you. Let's  just settle it once and for all.

Sunday, February 7, 2016

Study group discussion: Lipid Metabolism Deficiency Enzymes

Hey guys, this is a minor post about Lipid Metabolism Deficiency enzymes we talked about in Medicowesome Whatsapp Group. (If you want to join our group, please email us!)

Saturday, February 6, 2016

DNA viruses mnemonic

DNA is the blueprint of biological life as we know. 
Viruses contain either DNA or RNA, they NEVER contain both. Now whether viruses containing DNA makes them superior to there only-RNA containing counterparts..that is debatable.

Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Medical humour: Face-lift

"Face-lift is like a prolapse repair of the face."

- Sim, my medical friend rotating in urology talking about plastics.

Mnemonics - Dermatomal distribution easiest way to remember

Hey people,

I don't know if you struggled remembering the dermatomal distribution but I always had a tough time with it. 

Starting off: The sensory distributions always overlap with the adjacent ones. So there is no hard and fast rule. The zones that have sole supply from one nerve are known as Autonomous Sensory zones. Which are helpful in identifying the nerve lesion. C1 segment has no sensory supply, only motor supply.