Sunday, January 27, 2019

Submission: Tips for Step 2 CK

Hello All,


I am currently preparing for my step 2 CS exam. I gave my step 2 CK in June 2018 and scored >250.

Here are the resources I used-

1) Onlinemeded lectures+MTB

2) U world Q bank

3) NBME /UWSA

Here is what I. Used to do-

Listen to Online meded lectures and take notes on MTB but I did not read them again. I just listened to OME lectures  2nd time while exercising.

I printed the pdf file circulating with UWorld tables and Followed listening lectures of online meded  with doing questions of Usmle World and taking notes on Tables file.

Then I used to revise whole system I did in the week on weekends

Initially I started with one system a week and in the end I did 2 systems in a week.

Some important points to note-

1) U world and Online meded are the basic resources. 

2) Listen to all the online meded lectures  before solving U world Qs. It helps alot and makes the process of going through Usmle world Qs a lot easier.

3) Memorise Usmle World tables on your tips. 

4) Every option of Usmle world Qs is important. Go through not only the right one but also the wrong options properly.

5) I used to give a NBME every 3-4 weeks to track my progress and gave UWSA in the end. I started with 200’s and went upto 250’s.

-Parneet kaur


Thursday, January 24, 2019

Mechanistic insights regarding Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is characterized by choreoathetosis, dystonia, hyperuricemia, gout, self mutilatory behavior especially self biting of fingers and intellectual disability due to HGPRTase mutations.

So how does HGPRTase mutations actually cause dystonia and other extrapyramidal signs and symptoms?

1. For synthesis of dopamine tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase is required.
Tetrahydrobiopterin itself is derived by a series of reactions in which GTP cyclohydrolase is rate limiting enzyme.
Now HGPRTase deficiency causes depletion of GTP there by ultimately depleting tetrahydrobiopterin.

In fact GTP cyclohydrolase mutations are known to cause dopa responsive dystonia and phenotype similar to lesch-nyhan syndrome.

2. Secondly, dopamine receptors are linked to G-protein coupled receptors which alternate between GTP-GDP bound state, yet another link between GTP depletion and perturbation of dopamine signalling.

3. Adenosine deficiency due to reduction in salvage may adversely affect role of adenosine as neuroprotective agent.

Lastly, in lesch nyhan syndrome no characteristic imaging abnormalities are seen but reduced dendritic arborizations in caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens is thought to underlie clinical manifestations.

Kirtan Patolia

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Submission: Thyroid Acropachy

Let's go through quick review regarding Thyroid Acropachy! 

1)It is an uncommon finding of Graves disease.

2)It is a triad of clubbing+swelling of soft tissue of digits + periosteal reaction of extremity bones. 

3)It is usually associated with Thyroid Ophthalmopathy and Dermopathy.

X ray findings-Hands and feet involvement,soft tissue swelling, fluffy, asymmetric periosteal reaction

Skin biopsy- Fibroblast activation and GAG deposition.

Differentials: 

1)Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy-.

2)Symmetric periosteal reaction  -can involve long bones of forearms and legs

Treatment-
No Specific treatment available, Treatment directed at associated Ophthalmopathy and Dermopathy using Local corticosteroids and systemic immunosuppressive therapy.

By Parneet kaur



Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Cyanide poisoning

Cyanide is a mitochondrial toxin that causes death within minutes to hours of exposure.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:
1)Cyanide avidly binds to the ferric ion (Fe3+) of complex IV thus inhibiting the Electron transport chain.
2)The cell must then switch to anaerobic metabolism of glucose to generate ATP.Anaerobic metabolism leads to the formation of lactic acid and the development of metabolic acidosis.

TREATMENT:

1)Sodium nitrite and Amyl nitrite induce formation of methemoglobin. Cyanide has high affinity to metHb. This provides an attractive alternative binding site for cyanide which makes the ETC free.
2)Sodium thiosulfate can be given which converts cyanomethemoglobin to thiocyanate and metHb. Thiocyanate is then renally excreted and metHb can be converted back to normal Hb by using methylene blue.
3) Hydroxocobalamin, a precursor of vitamin B12, avidly binds to intracellular cyanide (with greater affinity than cytochrome oxidase) forming cyanocobalamin. This molecule is stable and readily excreted in the urine.

-Srikar Sama

Early morning workout and weight loss.

To reduce weight, early morning exercise is recommended but question is why?
Let's get back to basics before answering this question.

Body has three sources of blood glucose to maintain level uniformly.
1) Food.
2) Liver Glycogen.
3) ‎Gluconeogenesis.

Now, Liver Glycogen can provide energy for around 12-18 hours. Gluconeogenesis uses lots of energy to maintain blood glucose level. Between dinner and breakfast we have gap of around 12 hours. This mean before taking breakfast  liver glycogen stock is null! And body is using now gluconeogenesis to maintain blood glucose level and as you know it's going to take hell lots of ATPs to maintain it. Also, exercise uses lots of energy. Hence both in turn helps in reducing body weight.

What is wrong with evening workout?

Suppose a person has taken lunch around 2 pm and he's working out around 5-6 pm. Which stores will be used by body to maintain glucose level - food obviously! Hardly any Liver glycogen is used up. Also extra food will be stored.

That's all!

-Demotional bloke

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Authors diary: Goodbyes

It's heart breaking when you leave work in the evening and show up 10 hours later only to find that the patient you were taking care of passed away during the night.

You don't get to say goodbyes. But my wish for you is that you get to give your condolences 💔 


-IkaN 

Friday, January 4, 2019

USMLE Step 3 CCS sheet guide

Hey guys,

So I recently took my USMLE Step 3 and I gathered some of this from various resources. I think this may be of some help to the beginners.

Let's get started!

In relevant emergency cases (order the ones that are relevant):
ABC:
Airway
Breathing
Circulation

P.O. ICESS:
Pulse oximetry
Oxygen
Intravenous line and fluids (Please remember to type NSS/Normal Saline or Dextrose, etc. CCS software won't take orders that are less than 3 characters!)
Cardiac monitor
ECG
Sugar (fingerstick)
Suction

For chest pain add MONA:
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
~~~
Then order relevant Physical Exam (In Office cases, you'd want to order most physical exams and in the Emergency Department cases, you'd want to order more symptom-based system specific exam)
~~~
Laboratory orders: CBC LFT ICU PAX
Complete Blood Count (CBC), ESR
Basic Metabolic Profile (BMP)
Cardiac enzymes (if not ordered earlier)

Liver Function Tests (LFT) or Lipid profile
FOBT
TFT

Imaging (CT/MRI/USG/etc) Iron profile Immunologic tests (HIV/HepB/HepC/Rubella/etc)
Cultures (Blood/urine/fluid/etc)
Urine (routine, microscopy, culture & sensitivity)

Pregnancy test (urine) & Pap test (if female) PT/INR PTT d-Dimer PFT
Amylase ABG
Xray
~~~
You can now forward the time to get some results or decide whether the location needs to be changed
~~~
CCC
Comfort: if the patient is in pain- give NSAIDs/Morphine based on the situation; vomiting- antiemetic; etc
Cure: if you suspect a particular infection-give antibiotic; if it's an MI- angiography v/s other management options; etc
Consult: you may want to order a Psych or Surgery or OBGYN or any other relevant consult based on the case
~~~
If the patient needs to get admitted on floors or ICU:  ADIC

Activity: Bed rest/ ambulation
Diet
Input/output charting
Compression stockings
~~~
If the patient is scheduled to undergo a procedure: ABC PIN
Antibiotics
Blood grouping and crossmatching
Consent

PT/ PTT
INR
NPO
~~~
When you get your 2-minute screen: Counsel and order follow-up labs!
You may want to counsel them on their diagnosis, lifestyle habits, medication adherence/ compliance/ side effects and so on.

Hope this helps!

Stay awesome :)
-Rippie

Lifestyle modifications for managing hypertension

Hey guys,

Happy New Year!

Let's get started on lifestyle modifications for treating or managing hypertension.

We Decide to Eat less Salt & drink less Alcohol!

Weight loss: Reduce BMI to <25 
DASH: Diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated fat and total fat
Exercise: 30minutes/day for 5-6 days/week
Dietary Sodium: <3 g/day
Alcohol: 2 drinks/day in men and 1 drink/day in women

The effect of these interventions is in descending order, with weight loss having an impact of about 5-20 mmHg lowering per 10 kg weight loss and reducing alcohol intake can lower BP by 2-4 mmHg!

Remember: If a patient's BMI is already lower than 25, you don't have to ask them to reduce weight any further for this therapeutic effect. Instead, you ask them to switch over to DASH diet!

Hope this is helpful!

Stay awesome!
-Rippie

Thursday, January 3, 2019

In short: Vasopressin in the ICU

Hello!

Here are some quick points + mnemonics on Vasopressin!

1. Effects are preserved during hypoxia and severe acidosis and catecholamine-resistant states.

Mnemonic: Vasopressin presses when other pressors can't press the vasculature anymore.

2. Vasopressin decreases norepinephrine requirement.

3. Onset: fast, offset: fast.
Mnemonic: VasopressIN is IN and OUT fast.

4. It is often weaned off last in patients on multiple pressors for the same reason.

5. Used in:
- Refractory hypotension (potentiates the actions of over vasoconstrictors)
- Esophageal variceal bleed
- Cardiac arrest
Non ICU indications: vWD, DI, hemophilia

That's all!

-IkaN

Wednesday, January 2, 2019

In short: Dexmedetomidine and bradycardia

If a patient who is intubated and sedated develops bradycardia, go through the sedatives list - it might give you a hint on what is causing the bradycardia.

Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) is notorious for causing bradycardia. Another sedative associated with bradycardia is propofol.

That's all!

Will update this post at a later date. What you can do if you are free: Read up on it, write a small post on it and email it to us so we can post it and learn from you :)

-IkaN

Authors diary: In short

Hello!

I am planning to write short one line posts on things that I learn in the everyday.

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Pediatrics residency series: 1. Intro

Hey Medicowesomites :) Happy new year everyone (writing this post on 1-1-19)

Residency is time-consuming as you know. It’s been a long time since I last posted but I came back to tell you that I will be starting a new series on “Pediatrics Residency”. Useful apps, cases and other things will be discussed.

Stay tuned :)

-Murad