Showing posts with label Medicine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Medicine. Show all posts

Thursday, October 21, 2021

LV aneurysm: Difference between true LV aneurysm and LV pseudoaneurysm

LV aneurysms are most commonly caused by myocardial infarction. What's the difference between true aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm?

Thursday, October 14, 2021

Types of pulmonary hypertension mnemonic

Here are my notes and a video on types of pulmonary hypertension - WHO classification! It comes with a mnemonic :)

Thursday, July 22, 2021

Babeosis mnemonic

This is how I remember babeosis is associated with Maltese cross appearance.

You know you love me, xoxo, gossip girl!


Thursday, May 27, 2021

Immunofluorescence patterns in glomerular diseases notes and mnemonics

Immunopathologic patterns of immunoglobulins (Igs) and/or complement components deposited in glomerular diseases notes and mnemonics

Linear deposition:
Anti-GBM disease (mainly IgG)
unspecifically IgG in diabetes mellitus

Granular deposition: 
membranoproliferative GN
post-infectious GN
membranous GN
IgA, IgM, C1q, C3

Pauci immune deposition:
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener) PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)
Microscopic polyangiitis MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA


Treatment options for latent tuberculosis mnemonic

Treatment options for latent tuberculosis 

6 or 9 months of isoniazid 

3 months of isoniazid plus rifapentine, given once weekly

4 months of rifampin, given daily

3 months of isoniazid plus rifampin, given daily

That's all!

Sunday, May 23, 2021

Ehler-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) - High yield only

Hi! So let's learn EDS together. I've tabled a list of high-yield points of all the types of EDS. It requires little bit of revision but once you get a pictorial familiarity you should be able to recall them all. 

Have fun!

So, how to remember?

Step 1. Divide the table into 2 halves. Sl no. 1,2,3 have in common a lot of features:
  • They are all Autosomal Dominant. 
  • They have common Clinical features - skin HYPERelasticity, joint HYPERmobility and HYPER (easy) bruising. 
  • Go serially, Classical has the first 2, Type I and II and HYPERmobile is III and lastly Vascular is type I
  • Vascular type has additionally - arterial & uterine rupture.
Step 2. Now the second section Sl no. 4,5,6
  • EDS types with enzyme defects are Autosomal Recessive. So, 4 and 6 are AR. 
  • Kyphoscoliotic EDS is Type VI (K rearranged is a V and I)
  • For the last 2, mnemonic is ABCD😛 Arthrochalasia VII a, b and VII c is Dermatosparaxis.
  • KyphoSCOLIOTIC EDS - defective lysyl hydroxylase (=> abnormal cross linking of collagen or KOLLAGEN => think of bones ðŸĶī => congenital SCOLIOSIS)
  • ARTHROchalasia is COL IA (1st letter is A) and hence presents with severe JOINT hyper mobility.
  • DERMATospARaxis is AR and a defective Procollagen-N-peptidase and presents with CUTIS laxa. (Cuties are Pros ;)

Step 2. For the Gene types, come down in descending order: 5 4 3 2 1

Step 3. Remember Type V - DOEST NOT EXIST. 

Step 4. Revise again 😉

That's it! Stay safe ðŸŒļ
- Anagha :)

Sunday, May 9, 2021

Management of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease and carotid artery stenosis mnemonic

Super short post!

A) Asymptomatic

≥80% stenosis: Carotid endarterectomy
≤79% stenosis: Medical management

Mnemonic AGES: Asymptomatic Greater than Eighty Surgery

B) Symptomatic

≥70% stenosis: Carotid endarterectomy

Mnemonic SSS: Symptomatic Seventy Surgery

50%-69% stenosis
Male: Carotid endarterectomy
Female: Medical management

Mnemonic MMM: Males Manage More than fifty with surgery

<50% stenosis: Medical management

That's all!

Friday, May 7, 2021

Simvastatin combination with fibrates in clinical practice


High-yield in clinical practice:

DO NOT combine simvastatin with gemfibrozil (class-X interaction; high risk of acute liver damage and rhabdomyolysis). Inhibition of CYP450 enzyme by gemfibrozil plays the role in increasing levels of simvastatin 2-3x.

Combination of simvastatin with fenofibrate is relatively safer, although close observation and regular monitoring is required (class-C interaction). Serum levels of simvastatin remain unchanged.

- Jaskunwar Singh

Saturday, April 17, 2021

Crescent-shaped gametocytes in P. falciparum malaria

The most definitive finding of P. falciparum that can be seen in a blood smear when viewed under a microscope is the shape of the gametocytes.

Here is my mnemonic for it.

Monday, March 22, 2021

Cystinuria VS Cystinosis - know the difference!


Cystinuria is an AR disorder that is characterized by defective absorption of cysteine and other di-basic amino acids from PCT and intestinal lumen.

Cystinosis, on the other hand, is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by accumulation of amino acid cystine.

Note :

Cysteine + Cysteine = Cystine.

Fact :

Cystinosis is one of the most common cause of Fanconi's syndrome in pediatric age group.

Also, check hexagonal crystals seen in

That's all

- Jaskunwar Singh

Sunday, February 28, 2021

Essential tremor - a mnemonic.

Do you often forget the features of 'essential tremor'? Well shake no more, 'coz here's a mnemonic that will straighten things up for ya!

Wednesday, December 16, 2020

Types of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)

 Types of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)

LVH = increase in the mass of the left ventricle (LV)

Caused due to:
1. enlargement of the muscle cells
2. extracellular fibrosis

Concentric LVH 
- occurs in response to pressure overload
- examples: aortic stenosis or hypertension
- associated with: reduced cavity size

Eccentric hypertrophy
- occurs in response to volume overload
 -examples: aortic or mitral regurgitation
- associated with: dilation

LVH is also classified based on the cause
Due to primary condition (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)
Secondary to pathology (hypertension, myocardial infarction, and valvular heart disease)

That's all!