Showing posts with label USMLE Step 1. Show all posts
Showing posts with label USMLE Step 1. Show all posts

Friday, August 14, 2020

Answer: 17-year-old male presents with confusion and drowsiness

A 17-year-old male presents with confusion and drowsiness for 1 day. 

He has been healthy and playing in the high school basketball team for the last 2 years. His practice sessions always included 10 minutes of intense work followed by a period of rest or decreased activity. He also had complaints of dark urine which the previous doctor diagnosed as dehydration and was asked to drink more water. 

He recently started a football club and has been playing football in addition to basketball. He has had oliguria for 4 days. Vitals are BP 124/86 mm of Hg, HR 85 b/min. Pupils are non dilated and reactive to light equally bilaterally. The remainder of the physical examination is within normal limits. Lab work shows:

Question: 17-year-old male presents with confusion and drowsiness

A 17-year-old male presents with confusion and drowsiness for 1 day. 

He has been healthy and playing in the high school basketball team for the last 2 years. His practice sessions always included 10 minutes of intense work followed by a period of rest or decreased activity. He also had complaints of dark urine which the previous doctor diagnosed as dehydration and was asked to drink more water. 

He recently started a football club and has been playing football in addition to basketball. He has had oliguria for 4 days. Vitals are BP 124/86 mm of Hg, HR 85 b/min. Pupils are non dilated and reactive to light equally bilaterally. The remainder of the physical examination is within normal limits. Lab work shows:

Saturday, June 13, 2020

Clinical correlates: Epinephrine vs Norepinephrine reversal

Hey Awesome peeps :)

This post is about variation in the effects of epi- and norepinephrine depending on its dose.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Friday, April 24, 2020

Coronary artery anatomy mnemonic and video for visualization

Let's learn about the coronary artery anatomy today (and never forget it!)

Watch the video. Text and images below.


Funnel Plot

-also called as Begg’s plot
-type of scatter plot
-used to examine biases in meta-analyses

An ideal funnel plot is symmetric.
If no biases, 95% of studies lie within the triangle.


Monday, March 30, 2020

Rickettsia mnemonic

Hi!

Do you want to learn about Rickettsia today?

Rickettsia mnemonic (Rickettsia typhi, flea vector)

Friday, March 27, 2020

COVID-19: Coping with GRIEF in midst of coronavirus pandemic

The known death toll from the coronavirus has surpassed 25,000 globally. The pandemic has ended communal prayer and congregational funeral gatherings at many major churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples. With these restrictions and isolation measures, dying people can’t see their families at the endpoint of their life. The internet, however, offered some solace to others ( Facebook live streaming, Video calling, etc.) 

Tragic losses of life…Let’s understand grief in the midst of coronavirus.

Normal grief reaction :

Precipitated by the loss of a loved one (bereavement).

Sadness revolves around feelings of loss and typically occurs in "waves" intermixed with positive memories of the deceased.  
Simple hallucinations ( Visual / Auditory ) of the deceased one. 

Thoughts of dying involve wish to join the deceased but active suicidality uncommon 
For most, the natural mourning process lasts 6-12 months 

f/b the integration of grief, in which the individual continues to feel transient but less pronounced sadness, and life plans/routines have adapted to living without the deceased.

There are 5 stages of grief according to the K├╝bler-Ross model are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance (may occur in any order).

“Mnemonic” = ABCD 

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Acquired Von willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease is one of the most commonly encountered congenital bleeding disorders in clinical practice. Broadly speaking they are classified as type 1, 2A, 2B, 2M, 2N, and 3. Each one of them is distinct from the other in subtle ways.

However, it could be acquired in a number of ways.

 a.) In patients with thrombocytosis > 1 million cells/ microliter, especially in essential thrombocythemia, loss of HMW  vWD multimers leads to reduced vWF Ristocetin activity: vWF antigen ratio (<0.6)  suggesting type 2 like pattern.

 b.) In patients with aortic stenosis, due to extreme shear stress, vWF unfolds prematurely at the site of the valve revealing ADAMTS13 binding sites, ultimately resulting in its cleavage and loss of HMW multimers. So basically, it could be visualized as the pattern that is just opposite to TTP wherein defective ADAMTS13 activity results in excess of HMW vWF multimers.

It is often associated with either angiodysplasia or AVMs of the GI tract that further predisposes to bleeding. Although the exact pathogenesis of these lesions is not understood, one postulated mechanism suggests chronic colonic ischemia leading to sympathetic nervous system-induced vasodilation as a potential culprit.
 In this context, it is also known as Heyde's syndrome.

c.) Sometimes in severe hypothyroidism, often the production of vWF by endothelial cells itself is markedly reduced.

d.) Rarely in the setting of multiple myeloma and various other neoplasms, tumor cells express the excess of Gpllb/llla leading to enhanced clearance of vWF from circulation.

One of the common lab findings in acquired vWD is reduced vWF Ristocetin activity: vWF antigen ratio pointing to the disproportionate decrease in activity compared to antigen levels.
It is due to the loss of HMW  multimers.

- Kirtan Patolia

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Mnemonic for Antibodies in SLE & it's Clinical Importance

Hi everyone!

Here is a hack.

ANA = All Negative Absent = All Positive identified = Highest Sensitivity ( So best Screening Test ) 

Anti dsDNA = Disease Severity 

Anti Sm = Specific Most

Anti RNP = Raynaud & Polymyositis ( MCTD )

Monday, December 23, 2019

Important Mnemonics for Oral hypoglycaemic drugs in Diabetes


Hello everyone .. 

I make mnemonics for some important side effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs. 

You must know that because you may prescribe it for 1 out of 11 adults in whole population the of world….!!

Side effects of Oral hypoglycaemic drugs along with it's class & mechanism of action 

#Mnemonic 1
Big Men ForminG Poor Diabetic neuropathy ( D/Dx B12 Deficiency ➡️ confirmed by doing  B12 LAB test.)

Biguanide = Metformin 
Inhibit mGPD 
It causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency & Lactic Acidosis (LA) 

#Mnemonic 2 
1st Key to SUccess is Lord "Ram"

1st Gen SUlfonylureas
Closes K+ Channel 
Ram = Disulfiram like reaction….

#Mnemonic 3 
Paragliding makes your heart failed or maybe a fracture or bladder injury 

Para = PPAR Y
Gliding = Glitazone activates it...





#Mnemonic 4
"Rosy red Blood don't reach to heart (MI) but goes into Pee = Red Pi ( Pee = Urine in Bladder Cancer )
MI (rosiglitazone) 
Bladder cancer (pioglitazone)

#Mnemonic 5
“Change your Daily Personal Passivity (DPP) otherwise your heart fails” 
DPP  = DPP-4 inhibitors 

#Mnemonic 6
“Candid Status is Very Good in Love Test”

SGLT-2 inhibitors can cause Vulvovaginal Candidiasis 

Drugs category & their Suffix 

Pramlintide = Amylin Analogue 

1st gen Sulfonylureas = “Amide”
2nd gen Sulfonylureas = “Ride” & “Zide”
Meglitinides = “Nide”

DPP-4 Inhibitors = “Gliptin”

Glitazones / thiazolidinediones = “Zone”

SGLT -2 Inhibitors = “Flozin”

#Mnemonic 7
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors = "Please Side your Car & Pay Toll"
Acarbose & Miglitol 



#Clinical Pearls 

Weight neutral = DPP 4 & Alpha Glucosidase inhibitors 

SGLT2 inhibitors & GLP-1 = Used in CVD
( Cardiovascular diseases) patients

In case of Renal failure you can only give 2 type of drugs orally = DPP 4 inhibitors & Glitazones 

Injectables can be given in renal failure.

3 times / day dosing = Pramlintide , Alpha Glucosidase inhibitors & Glinide 

Regular Insulin ( Short acting ) is preferred for 
DKA ( IV)
Hyperklaemia (Add Glucose)
Stress Hyperglycemia

Thank you :)

- Dr. Drashtant Prajapati



Sunday, August 4, 2019

Tetralogy of Fallot: The Basics

Hey guys, this post highlights the important points discussed in the accompanying video.


Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Pathophysiology: Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hello guys, here’s a whiteboard summary of how DKA happens.


[Please click on the image to enhance it]

- DKA is a medical emergency. It’s a complication of type 1 diabetes.
- DKA has a triad of hyperglycemia, ketosis [metabolic acidosis] and dehydration.
- Main ketone bodies are beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Acetone is only a minor ketoacid.
- Lactic acidosis also contributes to metabolic acidosis.
- More glucose in blood leads to more glucose filtered into urine causing osmotic diuresis.


- Ashish Singh 

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

WhiteBoard Summary: Lichen Planus

Hi guys, let’s talk dermatology.

Lichen Planus is a papulosquamous disease that affects skin, nails and mucous membrane, caused by cell-mediated immunity of unknown aetiology. Here’s a (not-so-white) whiteboard summary.

[Please click on the image to enhance it]


- Morphological variants can be hypertrophic, atrophic, erosive, follicular, annular, vesicular, bullous, actinic or pemphigoid.
- Lichenoid reaction can be caused by drugs (thiazides, antimalarials, penicillamine, gold) and even in Graft vs. Host disease.
- Those with steroid resistance/ intolerance are treated by hydroxyquine, methotrexate or sulfasalazine.
- Psoralens can also be used along with UV-A radiation.
- Patient education regarding self-limiting and recurrent nature of the disease is important.


- Ashish Singh

Thursday, March 21, 2019

A-a Gradient

A-a gradient =[PAO2 - PaO2]
where:

A-a gradient = difference between alveolar PO2 and arterial PO2

PAO2 = alveolar PO2 (calculated from the alveolar gas equation)

PaO2 = arterial PO2 (measured in arterial blood)

PAO2 =150 - PaCo2/0.8


Normal range for A-a gradient is

10-15 mm Hg


ALL causes of hypoxemia lead to ↑ A-a gradient, EXCEPT:

Hypoventilation, high altitude, upper airway obstruction (e.g. epiglottitis from Haemophilus influenzae, or croup from parainfluenza virus)

Everything else will cause ↑ A-a gradient (e.g. shunt, V/Q mismatch, etc.).  

It's much better to remember the exceptions, then everything else becomes the rule!


Also to adjust for age, the thumb rule to calculate A-a gradient is :

Age /4   plus 4


A-a gradient >30 is considered elevated regardless of age.


Bhopalwala. H

Lung Biopsy in VAP

Lung biopsy in Ventilator-associated Pneumonia may be reserved for patients in whom infiltrates are progressive despite antibiotic therapy or patients in whom a non-infectious etiology is suspected.

The purpose of acquiring tissue under these circumstances is to identify a pathogen that may have been missed with previous sampling or a pathogen that is difficult to culture (eg, fungus, herpes viruses) or to identify a noninfectious process masquerading as infection (eg, cancer, cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis, lymphangitis, interstitial pneumonitis, vasculitis).

Source: Uptodate

Bhopalwala. H

Diagnosing the cause of polycythemia

Polycythemia refers to an increased hemoglobin concentration and/or hematocrit in peripheral blood.
For Diagnosing the specific cause of polycythemia follow these 3 steps:

STEP1: First check for RBC mass
1)Elevation of Hgb and/or Hct due to a decrease in plasma volume alone (ie, without an increase of the RBC mass) is referred to as relative polycythemia.
2)An increase of RBC mass refers to Absolute polycythemia. It can be categorized as either primary or secondary polycythemia.

STEP2: To diagnose the causes of absolute polycythemia. Check for EPO levels
1)Primary polycythemia is caused by a mutation in RBC progenitor cells that results in increased RBC mass. So there is a decrease in EPO levels. Ex: polycythemia vera (PV)
2)Secondary polycythemia refers to an increase of RBC mass caused by elevated serum EPO. Most often, this is due to an appropriate physiologic response to tissue hypoxia, or by autonomous EPO production(eg, an EPO-secreting tumor) 

STEP3: To diagnose the causes of secondary polycythemia. Check PaO2 and SaO2 levels
1)If PaO2<65% and SaO2<92% then it is because of chronic hypoxia due to high altitude, COPD, Smoking, etc.
2)If PaO2 and SaO2 levels are normal then consider EPO-secreting tumor(renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma).

-Srikar Sama

Monday, March 18, 2019

Right to left shunt causing Hypoxemia

A right-to-left shunt exists when blood passes from the right to the left side of the heart without being oxygenated. There are two types of right-to-left shunts:

●Anatomic shunts exist when the alveoli are bypassed. Examples include intracardiac shunts, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and hepatopulmonary syndrome.

●Physiologic shunts exist when non-ventilated alveoli are perfused. Examples include atelectasis and diseases with alveolar filling (eg, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome).

Right-to-left shunts cause extreme V/Q mismatch, with a V/Q ratio of zero in some lung regions. The net effect is hypoxemia, which is difficult to correct with supplemental oxygen.

The degree of shunt can be quantified from the shunt equation:

Qs/Qt  =  (CcO2  -  CaO2)  ÷  (CcO2  -  CvO2)

where Qs/Qt is the shunt fraction, CcO2 is the end-capillary oxygen content, CaO2 is the arterial oxygen content, and CvO2 is the mixed venous oxygen content. CaO2 and CvO2 are calculated from arterial and mixed venous blood gas measurements, respectively. CcO2 is estimated from the PAO2.

Source: UpToDate

Bhopalwala. H