Saturday, October 31, 2015

Biochemical tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae mnemonic

I had made a mnemonic to remember the biochemical tests given by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Submissions: Murmur characteristics mnemonic

When you are listening to a murmur, look for "SECRET Pi"

Effect of posture
Character (Tapping, heaving, thrill)
Radiation ( Axilla, neck, shoulder)
Effect of Respiration

This mnemonic was submitted by Adnan Arif =)

Thanks Adnan!


Thursday, October 29, 2015

Validity and reliability mnemonic

Hey everyone!

Someone requested me to make a mnemonic on reliability and validity. Let me tell you in short what these terms mean!

What is validity and reliability?

Let's take the example of measuring blood glucose levels.
Suppose, we have developed a test to measure glucose levels and we measure it in healthy man. Normal standard we have set is, let's say, 80.

Reliability means test will give the same value each time. Let's say, we measured three times it gave reading of 120, 120, 120 that is reliable. Reliability is consistency. Also called precision.

But validity means the test will give a value which is close to our standard value, that is, 80 in this case. The three readings we get this time are 82, 85, 79. So this test is reliable, but not valid. Validity is also called accuracy. Validity is not affected by sample size.

This interplay of words messes up with one of my readers brain, so I'm sharing the mnemonic I made on it. I thought it was silly at first, to use a mnemonic to remember words, but I'm glad you all are as weird as me.

VACuum = Validity + ACcuracy

PReCiSe = Precision + Reliability + Consistency + Sample size dependent

That's all!

Life is so good. I've never been so happy and calm. I'll tell you why soon, but for now, I just wanted you guys to know (:


Related post: Biostatistics mnemonic

Study group discussion: Ethacrynic acid and sensorineural deafness

Can someone explain how ethacrynic  acid causes deafness?

Na+K+Cl+ transporter is also present in the ear. This transporter is the main site of action for ethacrynic acid. So when it acts the transporter Is inhibited leading to ionic imbalance. This results in hearing loss.

It is the diuretic which is most dangerous when it comes to causing sensorineural deafness.
Even then it's use indicated in one special condition. Guess which condition?

If a patient has reaction to sulpha drugs.. The DOC becomes ethacrynic acid.

Recent studies revealed that the ototoxic effect of EA is actually involved in selectively blocking the lateral spiral artery in the cochlea and suppressing the blood flow supply to the cochlear lateral wall. The epithelial ischemia and anoxia in stria vascularis resulted in a significant depression of endolymphatic potential which was equivalent to cutting off the power supply of the cochlea . During the ischemic damage to the epithelium and capillaries on the cochlear lateral wall, the vascular permeability and membranous permeability in stria vascularis were also affected so that the ototoxic drug can penetrate through the broken blood-cochlea barrier to enter the cochlea.the ototoxic drug can reach the cochlear hair cells either through the cuticular plate facing the endolymph or through the under parts of the hair cells in the cortilymph.

In short bro, hair cell damage directly by EA.

Oooh. So it first causes ischemia and then enters the hair cells. But at the end the outer hair cells are getting damaged. Nice!

Monday, October 26, 2015

I am finding first year MBBS extremely difficult and tough

"Sis.. I just joined medical college. Finding it extremely tough to study. None of the subjects seem familiar. I'm losing all my positivism and feeling helpless."

Firstly, take a moment to congratulate yourself. You've made it to medical school! New subjects is going to be so much fun!

"I feel left behind. I'm not able to answer. What is taught in lecture is very minimalistic compared to text book."

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficiency mnemonic

Mnemonic for drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficiency is, "PAINS"
(Cause hemolysis in g6pd deficiency PAINS ;) )

Tips on how to find vein or phlebotomy

Study: Know your anatomy, so if you can't see or feel the veins, you still know where to go.
Just the anatomy of where the veins are. Sometimes you can't see them (old people, people with dark skin) and you can't really feel them. I've done some blind insertions before successfully.

Dont panic: Initially, you will find it hard, but do not get embarrassed if you miss.

Tourniquet: Tying a torniquet often helps by making the vein more swollen and prominent.
In our hospital, the patient's relative is asked to hold with the fingers tightly around the arm instead of using torniquets.

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Study group discussion: Carcinoid syndrome

What's carcinoid syndrome?

It's caused by serotonin. There's a GI tumor called carcinoid tumor which secretes it. So basically, the syndrome is caused by serotonin (Flushing, wheezing, etc)

What's the treatment for carcinoid?

Somatostatin analog, octreotide.

Which vitamin deficiency is associated with carcinoid syndrome?

Sunday, October 18, 2015

Study group discussion: What causes Carharts notch?

In otosclerosis, why carharts notch at 2000 Hz in PTA?

Carhart attributed this phenomenon to "mechanical factors associated with stapedial fixation."

But why the greatest dip at 2 kHz?

The ossicular chain has two basic modes of vibration. The first mode, with a peak around 1200 Hz, is the primary mode for AC stimulation. This mode is associated with a "hinging" motion of the ossicles caused by AC stimulation of the tympanic membrane at the umbo. The second mode, with a peak around 1700 Hz, is described as a "pivoting" motion of the malleus/incus, with an axis of rotation somewhat orthogonal to the axis of rotation associated with the "hinging" motion. The second mode is less robust than the primary mode for AC stimulation, but it is the dominant mode when excited by BC stimulation. A decreased mobility of the ossicular chain at 1700 Hz due to otosclerosis also affects the surrounding frequencies, but is seen most prominently as a BC loss at 2000 Hz in audiometric testing.

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Causes of carpal tunnel syndrome mnemonic

Short post for the day!

Mnemonic: CARPAL Tunnel Syndrome

Atypical carcinoid syndrome mnemonic

Happy Friday everyone!

Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors of the GI tract. They can make high levels of neuropeptides and amines, like serotonin, which can cause brief episodes of flushing, diarrhea, cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, heart disease, and in rare cases, pellagra. (Typical carcinoid syndrome)

Atypical carcinoids have a normal plasma serotonin level. They are characterized by extended episodes of deep purple flushing, headache, shortness of breath, and in rare cases, lacrimation (tears).

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Following Medicowesome

"I really want to read all your posts from time to time. How can I follow you?"

I feel that email is the best option.
You can follow by any RSS feed here.

As for social media, I regularly update Facebook and Twitter.

For those of you who use Whatsapp, the Broadcast list is a wonderful idea.
I add contacts to my broadcast list and send links to blog posts (new and old) on a daily basis.
Broadcast list:

Submissions: Anti-diarrhoeal and drugs used for constipation notes

These awesome notes were written by Kiki!

Triad of pheochromocytoma mnemonic

To remember the classic triad of pheochromocytoma, remember 3 P's.

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

Study group discussion: Pharmacology of drugs used in Parkinsons disease

Why does bradykinesia and rigidity occur in Parkinson's disease?

Bradykinesia is due to deficiency of dopamine.
Rigidity is due to uncompensated increase in acetylcholine.

Why levodopa is always given in combination with carbidopa and entacapone? 

Carbidopa is given to protect levodopa against dopa decarboxylase enzyme which causes its peripheral breakdown. Peripheral conversion of dopamine is harmful.. Can cause cardiac arrhythmias and postural hypotension.

Entacapone is given to block COMT.

Difference between entcapone and talcapone?

Study group discussion: Why are platelets low in hepatic disease?

Why are platelets low in hepatic disease?

You need cytokines to tell the marrow to synthesis platelets. They are synthesized chiefly by liver.

It is also been associated with the concept of hypersplenism leading to sequestration of thrombocytes in the enlarged spleen.

Submissions: Anti-diabetic drugs and insulin

Written by kiki <3 p="">
Anti-diabetic drugs classification

Upper segment to lower segment ratio (US:LS ratio) mnemonic


I was asked to measure the US:LS in a child. My professor was suspecting Rickets. So let's learn the normal ratios is various age groups!

Saturday, October 10, 2015

ACE inhibitors that are not prodrugs mnemonic and dysgeusia

Before I tell you about the mnemonic, lemme tell you about Titanic.

The captain of Titanic was not a pro in sailing because he sank the ship xD

Or because he listened to Bruce, "The press knows the size of Titanic, now I want them to marvel at her speed, too. We must give them something new to print. This maiden voyage of Titanic must make headlines!" 

Haste is waste, Bruce. Lol.

So now you know what I am talking about, here's the mnemonic:

"Captain who Listens and acts hastily is not a pro."

Scaphoid fracture mnemonic

This was sent to me by a friend, Akshay Dhaiya! I modified it a little bit :D

He likes to call the scaphoid fracture as the Spiderman fracture. Why?

Because it's caused by supination and dorsiflexion of wrist.
(Just like how spidey throws his web!)

Spiderman - Supinating and dorsiflexing the wrist xD

How to remember the function of anconeus muscle (Screwing movement at elbow joint)

Short anatomy post for the day!

I remember about Scrat the squirrel form Ice Age, always screwing around for an acorn.

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Why is gout more common in men?

Hey everyone!

I was trying to find out is hyperuricemia in Von Gierkes disease gender specific.. I didn't get the answer to my question (If you do, please let me know!), but I did found out that hyperuricemia, in general, is more common in men.


Sunday, October 4, 2015

Pterygium is more common on the nasal side: Why?

Why do pterygia occur more commonly in nasal side?

Environmental factors, such as a warm climate, dust and UV light, are the main causes of pterygia.

Major And Minor Blood Cross Matching Compatibility Tests

Hello awesomites! Jay ™ here today, once again with a new blog post. Yayy! ^_^

Today we will discuss about Major and minor blood cross match compatibility test. This is usually performed before the transfusion of blood from a donor to a recipient in a hospital setting.
Before we get to this we need to get known to a table which we will use in the following tests.

Blood Type
Agglutinogen (Antigen)
Agglutinin (Antibody)
Anti b
Anti a
A + B
Anti A + Anti B

In major compatibility test we mix Donor Cells (Dc) with Recipient Serum(Rs).
In minor compatibility test, we mix Recipient Cells (Rc) with Donor Serum (Ds)
For the Cells we check the Column of Agglutinogen and for Serum we check the Column of Agglutinin for obvious reasons of the place of presence of each.

So for an Example –